The objective of this research was to evaluate the antibody response to multiple doses of an inactivated mixed vaccine against Histophilus somni, Pasteurella multocida, and Mannheimia haemolytica, and to investigate the influence of age at time of vaccination in the field.
Material and Methods
Healthy female Holstein calves received the vaccine at the age of 5–12 days and 2, 3, or 4 weeks later in the first experiment or at 1, 2, or 3 weeks of age and 4 weeks later in the second. Blood samples were collected at each vaccination and 3 weeks after the booster dose. Based on the antibody titres after the vaccinations, calves were divided into positive and negative groups for each of the bacteria. Calves in the control group were vaccinated only once at the age of 19–26 days.
Antibody titres against H. somni and P. multocida were significantly increased by the booster. After the second vaccinations, the titres against each bacterium were higher than those of the control group, and the M. haemolytica-positive percentage in calves with high maternal antibody levels (MAL) exceeded that in calves with low MAL. In the first experiment, a majority of the M. haemolytica-positive calves tended to have received the primary dose at seven days of age or older.
A booster dose of the inactivated bacterial vaccine in young Holstein calves increased antibody production and overcame the maternal antibodies. Calves should be vaccinated first at seven days of age or older.
The characteristics of immune factors in somatic cells from lactating dairy cows and their association with commensal bacteria in normal milk have not been clarified. This study investigated the relationship between the pathogenic bacteria in milk and somatic cell immune factors in healthy lactating cows.
Material and Methods
In total 44 healthy Holstein cows were studied on one farm. Milk samples were collected aseptically using a cannula and these samples were cultured for detection of bacteria and analysis of mRNA of immune factors expressed by somatic cells. Cows were divided into two groups based on the microbial status of their milk samples: 12 cows showed bacteria in cultures (positive group), and the other 32 cows did not (negative group).
The mRNA levels of IL-6, lactotransferrin, and cathelicidin expressed by somatic cells after milking decreased significantly compared to those before milking in both groups (P < 0.05). There were significantly lower mRNA levels of IL-6 and cathelicidin in the positive group compared to those in the negative group before milking.
These results suggest that mRNA levels of IL-6 and cathelicidin expressed by the somatic cells may be affected by the presence of bacteria in healthy lactating dairy cows.
Uhl anomaly is an extremely rare condition, and herein, we present a case of prenatally diagnosed Uhl anomaly to illustrate the associated echocardiographic features. Fetal echocardiography at 26 weeks indicated an enlarged right ventricle, severe tricuspid and pulmonary regurgitation, and ruptured ventricular septal aneurysm, resulting in a circular shunt. At 36 weeks, based on the presence of a thin ventricular wall and absence of apical trabeculation, a diagnosis of Uhl anomaly was made. The neonate, delivered by cesarean section, underwent main pulmonary artery ligation to eliminate the circular shunt immediately after birth. Moreover, he underwent ductus arteriosus ligation and received a pulmonary artery to aorta shunt for progressive lung congestion. He is currently well and awaiting a staged Fontan operation involving a bidirectional Glenn procedure. Understanding and accurate prenatal diagnoses of Uhl anomaly may help in parental counseling, planning appropriate perinatal care, and increasing the chances of survival.