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  • Author: Toshihiro Ito x
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Abstract

This paper address the examination of spall damage in medium carbon steel subjected to a repeated impact testing. The experiments were performed well below the threshold spall-stress of 2.6 GPa and the damage introduced in the subsurface volume was investigated using the low frequency scanning acoustic microscopy. Based on B- and C-scan images (the images taken along and perpendicular to the impact surface) we made a qualitative and semi-quantitative evaluation of the damage type (voids in a ductile material or cracks in a brittle one) and its distribution. We found the spall damage development dependent on the amplitude and the duration of the stress pulses. In particular, we proved that the high, long stress pulses induce damage that resembles tensile failure of material, in which voids or cracks nucleate along the spall plane to form macro-cracks. This explains why spall-damage is not seen when the first impact is below the characteristic threshold spall-stress. However, when the tests consist of more than four impacts the spall damage is produced already under stress below the threshold-value.

Abstract

High-density polyethylene (HDPE) lenses are used for infrared radiation (IR) systems, such as radiation thermometers to transmit the IR of the 10 μm region. High IR transmittance and low visible ray (VR) transmittance are necessary for IR system lenses. This experimental investigation of thin-wall injection molding was conducted using 0.5 mm cavity thickness with a disk shape, finished to a mirror-like surface. As factors affecting transmittance, we evaluated the thickness, surface roughness, crystallinity, internal structure, and molecular chain orientation of molded parts, which were produced using four HDPE melt flow rates (MFRs). The changed molding conditions were mold temperature and holding pressure. Results showed that the thin-molded parts had higher IR transmittance. The thin-molded part was obtained with the smallest MFR of 5. Furthermore, the VR transmittance decreased when the molecular chain orientation in the molded parts was small and the crystallinity was high. The small orientation and high crystallinity were obtained simultaneously with the largest MFR of 42. Therefore, it was impossible to obtain high IR transmittance and low VR transmittance simultaneously by a change of MFR. This study confirmed that surface roughness and crystallinity do not affect transmittance.

Abstract

Polymeric complexes of ruthenium(II)-ruthenium(III) tetracarboxylato units linked by cyanato, thiocyanato, and selenocyanato ligands [Ru2{O2C(CH2)mCH3}4(L)]n (m = 0, 4–7; L = OCN−, SCN−, and SeCN−) were prepared and characterized based on the elemental analyses, IR, and diffuse reflectance spectra. Magnetic susceptibilities were measured at the temperature range of 4.5 K to 300 K, where the interdimer antiferromagnetic interactions were revealed. The strongest interaction was exhibited in case of m = 7 and L = OCN−. 1H-NMR spectra of [Ru{O2C(CH2)7CH3}4(SCN)]n in CD2Cl2 showed broad signals which can be ascribed to polymeric species, as the addition of tetrabutylammonium thiocyanate caused sharper signals due to the formation of [Ru2{O2C(CH2)7CH3}4(SCN)2]− adduct as the main species in the solution.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine how differences in the type of aromatic nucleus, side-chain structure and type of solvent affect the formation rate of quinone methide (QM) in the alkaline reaction of lignin. The reaction was done at a NaOH concentration of 1.0 mol l−1 and temperature of 75–140°C under an anaerobic condition. The formation rates of QM were in the order: syringyl > guaiacyl > p-hydroxyphenyl, when model compounds with lignin-type aromatic nuclei were compared. This and other results on various phenolic compounds suggested that the formation of QM is rapid from compounds having a high electron density in the aromatic π-electron system. The formation of QM was faster from a C6-C2-type than from a C6-C1-type lignin model compound, which was attributed to the fact that QM is an alkene and hence more stable when an unsaturated carbon in QM has an alkyl substituent, like the C6-C2-type compound. When aqueous 1,4-dioxane solutions with different 1,4-dioxane contents were used, the formation of QM became slower with increasing 1,4-dioxane content. This can be explained by the variation in the negative charge density in the rate-determining step, where the density is larger at the transition than at the initial state and consequently the activation energy is lower in a solvent with higher polarity.