Basic assumptions are introduced into a homogenization theory which is described in the form of elliptic differential equations with a small parameter. Homogenization operators are used to solve the equations by asymptotic expansion methods, and error estimates of homogenization solutions are given.
The occurrence of minor elements in the structure of biogenic diatomaceous opal-A is an important issue because it is closely related to biogeochemical processes driven by the precipitation, sedimentation, and storage of diatoms, as well as to the properties and applications of diatomite, which is the sedimentary rock composed of diatomaceous opal-A. However, to date, there is no direct microscopic evidence for the existence of minor elements, such as Al, Fe, and Mg, in the structure of diatomaceous opal-A, because such evidence requires observation of the internal structure of frustules to exclude the disturbance of impurity minerals, which is technically challenging using conventional techniques. In this work, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy-dispersive X‑ray spectroscopy (EDS) mapping analysis were performed on diatomaceous opal-A from three typical diatomite specimens that were pretreated using focused ion beam (FIB) thinning. This technique produces a slice of a diatom frustule for direct TEM observation of the internal structure of the diatomaceous opal-A. The results of this work clearly indicate that minor elements, such as Al, Fe, Ca, and Mg, conclusively exist within the siliceous framework of diatomaceous opal-A. The contents of these minor elements are at atomic ratio levels of 1 (minor element)/ 10 000 (Si) – 1/100, regardless of the genus of the diatoms. The occurrence of minor elements in the internal structure is likely through biological uptake during biosynthesis by living diatoms. Moreover, surface coatings composed of aluminosilicates on diatom frustules are common, and the contents of elements such as Al and Fe are tens or hundreds of times higher in the coatings than in the internal siliceous structure of diatomaceous opal-A. The discovery of the incorporation of the above-mentioned minor elements in the diatomaceous opal-A structure, both in the internal Si-O framework and on the surface, updates the knowledge about the properties of diatomite.
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important product generated in the body and related to many pathophysiological processes and glucose metabolism disorder can cause many fatal diseases in living bodies. Therefore, the sensing of H2O2 and glucose is of great significance in disease diagnostics and treatment. Fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) are one new class of nanoprobes for H2O2 and glucose. Nevertheless, the CD-based sensor is always based on its fluorescence response, which is influenced by the auto-fluorescent interference. Herein, efficient fluorescent CDs were synthesized by one-pot solvothermal method, and the CDs exhibit bright and persistent deep-red (DR) chemiluminescence (CL) in bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) oxalate and H2O2 solution with a CL quantum yield of (8.22 ± 0.30) × 10−3, which is amongst the highest values in ever reported nanomaterials for chemical analysis. Employing the CDs as CL nanoprobes, sensitive sensing for H2O2 has been achieved with a detection limit of 11.7 μM, and further for glucose detection with a detection limit of 12.6 μM. The DR CL CDs is promising to be applied in blood glucose analysis or in vivo biosensor.
Objective To investigate the effects of individualised treatment with peginterferon alpha-2a (40 kD) plus ribavirin in Chinese patients with CHC.
Methods Total of 297 consecutive Chinese patients were enrolled, including 250 naïve cases and 47 cases who were previously treated. Treatment duration was determined according to viral genotypes, prior treatment history and viral responses at week 4, 12 and 24.
Results Totally, 235 patients (79.1%) completed treatment and 186 (87.3%) achieved SVR. And 219 out of 289 (75.8%) patients achieved HCV RNA negative at week 4 (RVR) and 259 of 276 (93.8%) at week 12. Among the 164 patients with RVR who completed follow-up, 158 (96.3%) achieved SVR. Patients with RVR had lower baseline viral loads than patients without RVR (P = 0.034). The positive predictive value (PPV) of RVR for SVR was 90.7% (OR 2.10 vs. non-RVR, 95% CI: 0.50 - 8.7). Similar outcomes were observed among patients with HCV undetectable at week 12.
Conclusions Complete viral suppression by week 4 is associated with a high rate of treatment success in treatment naïve and experienced patients receiving individualized CHC therapy.
Chinese biochemical engineering is committed to supporting the chemical and food industries, to advance science and technology frontiers, and to meet major demands of Chinese society and national economic development. This paper reviews the development of biochemical engineering, strategic deployment of these technologies by the government, industrial demand, research progress, and breakthroughs in key technologies in China. Furthermore, the outlook for future developments in biochemical engineering in China is also discussed.