Asian swamp eel is a highly commercial fish, primarily for China and other Asian countries. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the genetic diversity of wild and cultured samples of Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus using ISSR markers. A total of 129 individuals belonging to three wild samples, Xiantao (XT), Huanggang (HG), Xinyang (XY) and three cultured samples, Wuhan (WH), Jingzhou (JZ) and Nanjing (NJ) were randomly selected for genetic analysis. Twelve ISSR primers were used for screening the six populations and 110 loci were obtained. The polymorphic loci were estimated to be 54%, 56.3%, 58.2%, 60.6%, 69.5% and 71% in NJ,WH, JZ, XT, HG and XY samples, respectively. Average heterozygosity value varied from 0.1956 to 0.2449. The three wild samples showed higher genetic diversity than the cultured samples (P < 0.05), including polymorphic bands (PPB), observed number of alleles per locus (to), effective number of alleles per locus (Ne), Nei’s gene diversity index (H) and Shannon’s information index (I).
2-nitro-4-methylsulfonylbenzoic acid (NMSBA) can be produced by oxidizing 2-nitro-4-methylsulfonyltoluene (NMST) with air catalyzed by Co/Mn/Br and phosphotungstic acid(HPW) loaded on activated carbon. This paper reports that the catalytic ability of the HPW@C catalyst in the oxidation of NMST to NMSBA can be improved by treating the activated carbon with ZnCl2 solution. The best modification condition with ZnCl2 solution is impregnating the carbon sample in 0.1 mol/L solution for 6 h followed by calcination at 600 °C for 4 h. The increase of the surface area and the acidic groups on the carbon surface enhances the catalytic ability of the HPW@C catalyst. The mesopores play an important role in the catalytic oxidation of NMST to NMSBA.
A modified mapping method is used to obtain variable separation solutions with two arbitrary functions of the (2+1)-dimensional modified dispersive water-wave system. Based on the variable separation solution and by selecting appropriate functions, we discuss interaction behaviours among special anti-solitons constructed by multi-valued functions. The analysis results exhibit that the interaction behaviours among special anti-dromion, dromion-like anti-peakon, and dromion-like anti-semifoldon are all non-completely elastic and phase shifts exist, while the interaction behaviour among dromionlike anti-semifoldons is completely elastic and without phase shifts.
The aim of this work was to assess the diagnostic value of anti-CCP-3 and anti-CCP-2 for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and determine whether anti-CCP-3 more accurately identifies patients with rheumatoid arthritis than anti-CCP-2. PubMed and CNKI databases were searched for studies published in English and Chinese that examined the use of anti-CCP-3 and anti-CCP-2 in the diagnosis of known or suspected rheumatoid arthritis from January 2006 to July 2013. Seventeen included studies of methodological quality were rated by using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) tools A random-effects method was used to summarize sensitivities, specificities, positive and negative likelihood ratio (LR+ and LR−, respectively), and diagnostic odds ratio from 17 studies. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, LR+, LR− and diagnostic odds ratio for anti-CCP-3 were 0.737 (95% CI, 0.717–0.757), 0.933 (95% CI, 0.924–0.942), 11.096 (95% CI, 8.876–13.870), 0.274 (95% CI, 0.231–0.326), and 42.908 (95% CI, 33.828–54.426), respectively. For anti-CCP-2, the values were 0.719 (95% CI, 0.699–0.739), 0.960 (95% CI, 0.953–0.966), 17.485 (95% CI, 11.960–25.562), 0.294 (95% CI, 0.258–0.335) and 63.458 (95% CI, 44.214–91.078), respectively. With high specificity and moderate sensitivity, anti-CCP-2 and anti-CCP-3 played an important role in confirming the diagnosis of RA. Anti-CCP-3 did not have better diagnostic performances than anti-CCP-2, but anti-CCP-2 had evident heterogeneity compared to anti-CCP-3, especially in American patients.
Koji preparation is the key step in soy sauce brewing. In this study, 21 medicinal herbs were tested for their abilities in enhancing the protease activities of soy sauce koji. Among these herbs Rhodiola rosea was found to be the most efficient in increasing protease activities. Kinetic analyses revealed that R. rosea addition not only promoted microbe growth and increase the activities of neutral and acid proteases (by 29.8% and 13.4%, respectively) but also elevated α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and total phenolics and flavonoids (by 9.5%, 47.1% and 14.1%, respectively); the formations of proteases and antioxidant properties depend largely on microbe growth; and the promotion effects of R. rosea addition were mainly displayed in later stage of fermentation. Using the R. rosea koji for soy sauce production resulted in 8.9%, 19.1%, 6.6%, 23% and 102% higher of total and amino-type nitrogen contents, protein utilization, total phenolics and flavonoids, respectively.