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  • Author: Xin-Han Dong x
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Maize starch-water suspensions (8.0%) were submitted to the pulsed electric fields (PEF) with different electric field strength and treatment time up to 50 kV/cm and 1272 μs. Samples were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). GPC analysis showed that molecular weights (Mw and Mn) were decreased with increasing electric field strength and treatment time. DSC studies showed a decrease in gelatinization temperatures (To and Tp) and the enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔHgel) with increasing electric field strength and treatment time. It was explored that electric field strength played a dominant role in the PEF treatments. On the other hand, it was demonstrated from NMR and TGA analysis that no significant difference among the native and PEF-treated maize starches was obtained, which indicated that PEF treatments did not affect the chemical structure of maize starch.


Let μM,D be a self-affine measure generated by an expanding diagonal matrix MM3() with entries ρ1,ρ2,ρ3 and the digit set D={(0,0,0)t,(1,0,0)t,(0,1,0)t,(0,0,1)t}. In this paper, we prove that for any ρ1,ρ2,ρ3(1,), if ρ1,ρ2,ρ3{±x1r:x+,r+}, then L2(μM,D) contains an infinite orthogonal set of exponential functions if and only if there exist two numbers of ρ1,ρ2,ρ3 that are in the set {±(pq)1r:p2+,q2+-1 and r+}. In particular, if ρ1,ρ2,ρ3{pq:p,q2+1}, then there exist at most 4 mutually orthogonal exponential functions in L2(μM,D), and the number 4 is the best possible.


Let the 2×2 expanding matrix Rk be an integer Jordan matrix, i.e., Rk=diag(rk,sk) or Rk=J(pk), and let Dk={0,1,,qk-1}v with v=(1,1)T and 2qkpk,rk,sk for each natural number k. We show that the sequence of Hadamard triples {(Rk,Dk,Ck)} admits a spectrum of the associated Moran measure provided that lim infk2qkRk-1<1.



Xylazine, a type of α2-adrenoceptors, is a commonly used drug in veterinary medicine. Xylazine-induced changes in the content of amino acid neurotransmitters – glycine (Gly) and aspartic acid (Asp), in different brain regions and neurons were studied.

Material and Methods

Wistar rats were administered 50 mg/kg or 70 mg/kg of xylazine by intraperitoneal injection. In addition, in vitro experiments were conducted, in which neurons were treated with 15 μg/mL, 25 μg/mL, 35μg/mL, and 45 μg/mL of xylazine. Test methods were based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA).


During anaesthesia, Asp levels in each brain area were significantly lower compared to the control group. Except for the cerebrum, levels of Gly in other brain areas were significantly increased during the anaesthesia period. In vitro, xylazine-related neuron secretion of Gly increased significantly compared to the control group at 60 min and 90 min. Moreover, xylazine caused a significant decrease in the levels of Asp secreted by neurons at 20 min, but gradually returned to the level of the control group.


The data showed that during anaesthesia the overall levels of Asp decreased and overall levels of Gly increased. In addition, the inhibitory effect of xylazine on Asp and the promotion of Gly were dose-dependent. Our data showed that different effects of xylazine on excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters provided a theoretical basis for the mechanism of xylazine activity in clinical anaesthesia.