As an important plateau cereal crop, hulless barley is the principal food for the Tibetan people in China. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) is considered as the key enzyme for starch biosynthesis in plants. In this study, cDNAs encoding the small subunit (SSU I) and large subunit (LSU I) of AGPase were isolated from hulless barley. The results showed that SSU I and LSU I were 1438 and 1786 bp in length with a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 1419 and 1572 bp. The ORF-encoded polypeptides of 472 and 523 amino acids were having calculated molecular masses of 52.01 and 58.23 kDa, and the pI values were 5.59 and 6.30. In addition, phylogenetic analysis showed that SSU I and LSU I had the same phylogenetic trends with some species. Furthermore, expression levels in different growth periods and tissues of two hulless barley varieties were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Gene expression levels of SSU I and LSU I were consistent with the total starch accumulation rate in endosperm. In conclusion, our data confirmed that SSU I and LSU I played an important role in hulless barley starch synthesis.
The study on the behaviour of decarburization, temperature increase, change of phosphorus and oxygen content of liquid steel during reblow process was presented in this paper. On the basis of traditional three-stage decarburization theory and thermal equilibrium theory, models for the variation of carbon content and temperature were established. Moreover, with application of data mining method, models for change of phosphorus and oxygen content were built based on large amount of production data and thermodynamic theory. By considering the variation of composition and temperature of molten steel, the reblow model was obtained and the software for reblow operation was developed with the combination of production technology. The test results indicated that the reblow rate (reblow more than once) dropped from 3.99 % to 0, and the average tap to tap time was reduced from 37.43 min to 36.35 min. It could provide an effective solution for medium-high carbon steel melting.
Objective To explore whether age, disease severity, cytokines and lymphocytes in H1N1 influenza A patients correlate with viral load and clearance.
Methods Total of 70 mild and 16 severe patients infected with H1N1 influenza A virus were enrolled in this study.
Results It was found that the patients under 14 years old and severe patients displayed significantly higher viral loads and prolonged viral shedding periods compared with the patients over 14 years old and mild patients, respectively (P < 0.05). Moreover, the patients under 14 years old and severe patients displayed significantly lower Th17 cell frequency than the patients over 14 years old and mild patients (P < 0.01). The viral shedding period inversely correlated with the frequency of IL-17+IFN-γ-CD4+ T cells. Additionally, the decreased concentration of serum TGF-β correlated with the decreased frequency of IL-17+IFN-γ-CD4+ T cells.
Conclusions Both younger and severe patients are associated with higher viral loads and longer viral shedding periods, which may partially be attributed to the impaired Th17 cell response.