In this paper I focus on a major aspect of the later Wittgenstein’s investigation of thinking – his discussion of the idea of thinking as a process or an activity. I shall show that Wittgenstein’s remarks, apart from some concerning the methodology and conception of philosophy, are grammatical remarks, meaning that they describe the use of the word “thinking” and can be agreed to by every competent speaker. I thus show that Wittgenstein’s investigation of thinking is a grammatical one, and hence that there is no inconsistency between his conception of philosophy and his philosophical practice. In the process of doing so, I shall also review previous studies on this topic and point out their deficiencies.
Regulation often takes the form of a standard that can be met through the implementation of any of a number of different policies. This paper examines how the authority to set the standard and the authority to choose the combination of policies to meet the standard should be allocated between a central government and local governments. In the context of the United States, for example, should standards regarding such public goods as the environment or education be set and implemented by the federal government, by individual state governments, or by both? Because decisions about setting and/or meeting the standard can be non-contractible, an incomplete contracting approach is used. A central finding is that "conjoint federalism" (the central government sets the standard while the local governments meet the standard), which is the regulatory structure often used in federations such as the United States and the European Union, can be the least efficient form, while a reverse form of delegation, in which local governments choose their own individual standards which the central government then decides how to collectively meet, can be the most efficient.
Mössbauer powder diffractometry was used to study partially-ordered 57Fe3Al. Multiple diffraction patterns were measured at Doppler velocities across all nuclear resonances in the sample. The superlattice diffractions were analyzed to provide data on the long-range order of Fe atoms having different numbers of Al neighbors. Comparing experimental data to calculations showed that Fe atoms having three Al atoms as first-nearest neighbors (1nn) have simple cubic long-range order, similar to that of Fe atoms with four Al 1nn. The simple cubic periodicity of Fe atoms with three Al 1nn was significantly lower than expected for homogeneous antisite disorder, however. Monte-Carlo simulations and transmission electron microscopy suggest that a significant fraction of aperiodic Fe atoms with three Al 1nn are near antiphase domain boundaries.