Nuclear analytical techniques are a family of modern analytical methods that are based on nuclear reactions, nuclear effects,
nuclear radiations, nuclear spectroscopy, nuclear parameters, and nuclear facilities. Because of their combined characteristics of
sensitivity and selectivity, they are widely used in projects ranging from life sciences to deep-space exploration.In this review article, new nuclear facilities and their analytical applications in China are selectively reviewed, covering the
following aspects: large scientific facilities, national demands, and key scientific issues with the emphasis on the new achievements.
We compare parametric and nonparametric estimation methods in the context of PBPK modeling using simulation studies. We implement a Monte Carlo Markov Chain simulation technique in the parametric method, and a functional analytical approach to estimate the probability distribution function directly in the non-parametric method. The simulation results suggest an advantage for the parametric method when the underlying model can capture the true population distribution. On the other hand, our calculations demonstrate some advantages for a nonparametric approach since it is a more cautious (and hence safer) way to assess the distribution when one does not have sufficient knowledge to assume a population distribution form or parametrization. The parametric approach has obvious advantages when one has significant a priori information on the distributions sought,
although when used in the nonparametric method, prior information can also significantly facilitate estimation.