Background: We investigated the genotypic distribution of Hpdel in healthy subjects and cancer patients in Taiwan.
Methods: Blood samples were collected from 244 randomly selected healthy Taiwanese volunteers and 737 patients with various cancers. Samples were analyzed for the haptoglobin (Hp) gene, and the presence of the Hpdel allele was determined from genomic DNA by an Hpdel-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The plasma concentration of Hp was also determined.
Results: The frequency of the Hpdel allele was calculated to be 0.029, and was not different between the healthy subjects and patients with cancer. The prevalence of Hp deficiency caused by Hpdel homozygosity was estimated to be ∼0.85 in 1000. Fifty-seven subjects were reclassified from homozygous Hp1 or Hp2 to Hp1/Hpdel or Hp2/Hpdel genotypes. The Hpdel allele is not associated with prevalence, severity or stage of any cancer.
Conclusions: Congenital Hp deficiency caused by Hpdel homozygosity is a condition present in Taiwan with a relatively high frequency. However, the Hpdel variant does not play a role in cancer.
Background: The aim of this study was to determine whether haptoglobin (Hp) genotypes are associated with prognosis in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC).
Methods: We studied patients with HNSCC without distant metastasis at diagnosis. The Hp genotype of each patient was determined and the prognostic significance of the Hp genotype was further analyzed. Pearson's χ2-test or Fisher's exact test were used to analyze correlations between Hp genotype and clinical characteristics of HNSCC. Eighty patients with newly diagnosed HNSCC who were treated with curative modality were enrolled in this study. Kaplan-Meier plots and log-rank test were used to compare locoregional recurrence-free survival, distant-metastasis-free survival and overall survival of patients according to Hp genotype. Survival analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazard models.
Results: Eighty patients with newly diagnosed HNSCC were enrolled in this study. There was no significant difference in the distribution of Hp genotypes in HNSCC patients and healthy individuals (p=0.959). Matched-pair analysis showed that locoregional recurrence-free survival was poor (p=0.02) for HNSCC patients with Hp 2-2 or 2-0. There was no significant difference in distant metastasis-free survival and overall survival (p=0.422 and 0.509, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that Hp 2-2 or 2-0 was associated with an increased risk of locoregional recurrence [Hazard ratio (HR) 5.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1–6.65; p=0.038]. The risk was still higher in patients with Hp 2-2 or 2-0 after further adjusting for age and treatment modality (HR 7.6; 95% CI, 1.2–46; p=0.028) in locoregional recurrence-free survival.
Conclusions: The present data show that the Hp genotype is closely related to recurrence rate in patients with HNSCC. Patients with Hp 2-2 or 2-0 have greater locoregional recurrence and significantly increased HRs in multivariate analysis. The Hp genotype may be a prognostic factor in patients with HNSCC.