The crystal structure of covellite has been studied under pressure up to 33 kbar based on single-crystal diffraction intensities collected with a four-circle diffractometer. The contraction of the unit cell takes place in such a way that the axial ratio c/a is kept nearly constant, the cell volume at 1 bar being reduced by about 5% at 33 kbar. With the contraction of the Cu – S bonds the sulfur-sulfur bond of the S2 group shows a trend of lengthening in a way similar to the relation between S – S and M – S bonds in the compounds MS2 (M = Cu, Ni, Co, Fe) having the pyrite structure type.
Uncontrolled inflammation and endotoxin play a central role in septic shock. Statins may possess anti-inflammatory properties, and removal of endotoxin by hemoperfusion with polymyxin B-immobilized fiber (PMX-F) could have favorable effects on sepsis. We examined retrospectively whether pre-existing statin and hemoperfusion with PMX-F at the time of admission were separately and independently associated with decreased overall 28-day mortality in septic shock patients. Consecutive 173 patients with septic shock (71.2±10.7 years old, 115 male and 58 female) were included in the present study. All patients underwent a complete history and physical examination, determination of blood chemistries. Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that albumin, creatinine (inversely), statin use, hemoperfusion with PMX-F and HDL-cholesterol were independently correlated to 28-day survival in septic shock patients (R2=0.464). Our present study suggests that pre-existing statin use and hemoperfusion with PMX-F may separately and independently contribute to blunt the process of septic shock.
We investigate the incentive and welfare implications of a merger when heterogeneous oligopolists compete both in process R&D and on the product market. We examine how a merger affects the output, investment, and profits of firms. In addition, we examine whether firms have merger incentives, and, if so, whether such mergers are desirable from the viewpoint of social welfare. If R&D is not expensive and if large cost differences between efficient and inefficient firms exist, a merger between homogeneous firms tends to occur even though it harms welfare.