This study examines food-fuel trade-offs from the perspective of crop producers and their choices in marketing their grain among food, feed and fuel use. Based on a recent survey of Iowa grain producers, this study finds that price competition from ethanol plants has increased the share of the corn marketed directly to ethanol plants and lowered the market share of corn marketed for domestic and international food/feed purposes. Other factors, such as farm size and market distance, affect the share of corn directed to the fuel, food, and feed markets. The results indicate corn producers are willing to bear higher transportation costs to reach food markets over other market outlets.
Two triorganotin ferrocenecarboxylates, C5 H5 FeC5 H4 COOSnR3 (R=C6 H11-c, 1; C6 H5 C(CH3)2 CH2, 2), have been synthesized by the reaction of ferrocenecarboxylic acid with triorganotin hydroxide in benzene and characterized by means of elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR spectroscopy and X-ray single crystal diffraction. The carboxylate in the compounds is monodentate, and the tin atom adopts distorted tetrahedral coordination geometry. Bioassay results have shown that the compounds have good in vitro antibacterial activity.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between Interleukin 17 (IL-17) gene rs3748067 C>T polymorphism and gastric cancer risk through pooling the open published data.
Case-control or cohort studies relevant to IL-17 gene rs3748067 C>T polymorphism and gastric cancer susceptibility were systematic searched for in the databases of CNKI, Pubmed, Medline, Embase and Web of science. The association between IL-17 gene rs3748067 C>T polymorphism and gastric cancer risk were expressed with an odds ratio(OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Statistical heterogeneity across the studies was evaluated by I2 test. Publication bias was evaluated by Begg’s funnel plot and Egger’s line regression test.
Finally, seven case-control studies were included in our present study. Because of the statistical heterogeneity among the included studies for the aspects of dominant (TT+CT vs CC), recessive (TT vs CT+CC) and homozygous genetic model (TT vs CC), the data was pooled by random effect model. The pooled ORs were OR=0.99 (95% CI: 0.65-1.52), OR =1.23 (95% CI: 0.73-2.06 ) and OR=1.14 (95% CI: 0.58-2.27) for dominant, recessive and homozygous genetic model respectively. The pooled data indicated no correlation between IL-17 gene rs3748067 C>T polymorphism and gastric cancer risk. Significant publication bias was found in the dominant genetic model (p<0.05), but not in recessive and homozygous genetic model (p>0.05).
Based on the present evidence, there was no correlation between IL-17 gene rs3748067 C>T polymorphism and gastric cancer susceptibility in all genetic model. However, for the small sample size, significant heterogeneity and publication bias, the conclusion should be further evaluated through well designed case-control or cohort studies.
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is an attractive technique in separation science because of its high separation performance, short analysis time and low cost. Electrochemical detection (EC) is a powerful tool for CE because of its high sensitivity. In this review, developments of CE-EC from 2008 to August, 2011 are reviewed. We choose papers of innovative and novel results to demonstrate the newest and most important progress in CE-EC.
Spatial distribution, diversity and composition of eukaryotic ultraplankton community of the northern South China Sea (nSCS) surface water and the relationship with the in situ water environment were investigated by the method of polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). A total of 18 DGGE intensive bands were detected and the sequence analysis of these DGGE bands revealed that Alveolata was the dominant eukaryotic ultraplankton group of surface water in the nSCS (50%). Other species belonged to Bicoecea, Bolidophyceae, Polycystinea and Chlorophyta, which accounted for less proportion of eukaryotic ultraplankton in the study area. Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages clustering of the sampling stations indicated that all stations were classified mainly based on geographical proximity. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was employed to further investigate the relationships between DGGE band pattern and the environmental variables. Based on the RDA analysis, temperature, salinity, phosphorus and silicate were the important factors to shape the eukaryotic ultraplankton community composition in the nSCS.