Gas holdup characteristics were explored experimentally in a tapered bubble column of 3.00m height. The internal diameter increased from 0.10 m at the bottom to 0.20 m at the top. Two gas holdup characteristic parameters investigated were local gas holdup and overall gas holdup. Local gas holdup was measured by pressure drop method whilst overall gas holdup was measured by both pressure drop and bed expansion techniques. Axial gas holdup profile decreased from the bottom to the top in the range of the experiments. Overall gas holdup reached a maximum in transitional regime for either the gas-liquid system or the gas-liquid-solid system with low slurry concentration, but increased monotonically for gas-liquid-solid system with high slurry concentration. Overall gas holdup decreased with increasing static slurry height or solid concentration. The effect of particle diameter on gas holdup was too insignificant to be considered. Experiments were carried out in a cylindrical column to compare the difference between cylindrical and tapered bubble columns. Moreover, an empirical correlation was presented to estimate overall gas holdup in the tapered slurry bubble column (TSBC).
Opinion mining and sentiment analysis in Online Learning Community can truly reflect the students’ learning situation, which provides the necessary theoretical basis for following revision of teaching plans. To improve the accuracy of topic-sentiment analysis, a novel model for topic sentiment analysis is proposed that outperforms other state-of-art models.
We aim at highlighting the identification and visualization of topic sentiment based on learning topic mining and sentiment clustering at various granularity-levels. The proposed method comprised data preprocessing, topic detection, sentiment analysis, and visualization.
The proposed model can effectively perceive students’ sentiment tendencies on different topics, which provides powerful practical reference for improving the quality of information services in teaching practice.
The model obtains the topic-terminology hybrid matrix and the document-topic hybrid matrix by selecting the real user’s comment information on the basis of LDA topic detection approach, without considering the intensity of students’ sentiments and their evolutionary trends.
The implication and association rules to visualize the negative sentiment in comments or reviews enable teachers and administrators to access a certain plaint, which can be utilized as a reference for enhancing the accuracy of learning content recommendation, and evaluating the quality of their services.
The topic-sentiment analysis model can clarify the hierarchical dependencies between different topics, which lay the foundation for improving the accuracy of teaching content recommendation and optimizing the knowledge coherence of related courses.
We propose two new measures for evaluating offensive ability of NBA players, using one-dimensional shooting data from three seasons beginning with the 2004-05 season. These measures improve upon currently employed shooting statistics by accounting for the varying shooting patterns of players over different distances from the basket. This variance also provides us with an intuitive metric for clustering players, wherein performance of players is calculated and compared to his cluster center as a baseline. To further improve the accuracy of our measures, we develop our own variation of smoothing and shrinkage, reducing any small sample biases and abnormalities.The first measure, SCAB or, Scoring Ability Above Baseline, measures a player's ability to score as a function of time on court. The second metric, SHTAB or Shooting Ability, calculates a player's propensity to score on a per-shot basis. Our results show that a combination of SCAB and SHTAB can be used to separate out players based on their offensive game. We observe that players who are highly ranked according to our measures are regularly considered as top performers on offense by experts, with the notable exception of LeBron James; the same claim holds for the offensive dregs. We suggest possible explanations for our findings and explore possibilities of future work with regard to player defense.
An external liquid circulation is introduced into a traditional internal loop reactor in order to improve liquid circulation and increase the interface between gas and liquid phases. The effects of superficial gas velocity and external liquid circulation velocity on local and overall gas holdups are explored experimentally and numerically in the loop section of a combined gas-liquid contactor, which consists of a liquid spray, sieve plates and an internal loop with external liquid circulation. Local gas holdup is measured experimentally by a double-sensor conductivity probe. Numerical simulations are conducted in the platform of a commercial software package, ANSYS CFX 10.0. Gas holdup and other information are obtained by solving the governing equations of mass and momentum balances for gas and liquid phases in a hybrid mesh system. Both measured and simulated results indicate that local, section-averaged, and overall gas holdups increase with an increase of the superficial gas velocity. The downcomer tube for circulating external liquid has a significant influence in the gas-distributor and the downcomer-tube action regions rather than in the upper draft-tube and the gas-liquid separation regions. Good agreement between measured and predicted data suggests that CFD simulation together with experimental investigation can be employed to develop novel gas-liquid contactors with a complex geometrical configuration.
In recent years, magnesium (Mg) alloys have attracted great attention due to superior biocompatibility, biodegradability, and other characteristics important for use in biodegradable implants. However, the development of Mg alloys for clinical application continues to be hindered by high corrosion rates and localized corrosion modes, both of which are detrimental to the mechanical integrity of a load-bearing temporary implant. To overcome these challenges, technologies have been developed to improve the corrosion resistance of Mg alloys, among which surface treatment is the most common way to enhance not only the corrosion resistance, but also the bioactivity of biodegradable Mg alloys. Nevertheless, surface treatments are unable to fundamentally solve the problems of fast corrosion rate and localized corrosion. Therefore, it is of great importance to alter and improve the intrinsic corrosion behavior of Mg alloys for biomedical applications. To show the significance of the intrinsic corrosion resistance of biodegradable Mg alloys and attract much attention on this issue, this article presents a review of the improvements made to enhance intrinsic corrosion resistance of Mg alloys in recent years through the design and preparation of the Mg alloys, including purifying, alloying, grain refinement, and heat treatment techniques. The influence of long-period stacking-ordered structure on corrosion behavior of the biodegradable Mg alloys is also discussed.