Two heptapeptides have been prepared by Fmoc methodology using Wang resin as solid support. For attachment of the first amino acid, several coupling systems were evaluated, and DIC/DMAP system could give yields of >99% and low levels of racemization. The selection of scavenger combination to deprotect side chains revealed that H2O/p-cresol was good at scavenging trityl and 1,2-ethanedithiol was highly efficient for scavenging t-butyl. Through shortening the preactivation time to 5 min, the racemization which occurred during formation of amide bonds coupled by HBTU was minimized. The crude peptides were characterized by RP-HPLC and MS, and sequenced by MS/MS to acquire reliable amino acid sequence information.
A new complex Cu2(phen)2[C7H8(COO)2]2 (H2O)4:5 (1) has been synthesized, with the dianion of bicyclo[2.2.1] hept-2-ene-5,6-dicarboxylic acid [C7H8(COOH)2] (LH2) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) as ligands. In 1, L2- anions link Cu(II) cations to form two binuclear structure units, in which each Cu(II) cation is coordinated by five donor atoms to give a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. The magnetic data of 1 show that it exhibits weak antiferromagnetic properties at low temperature. When the excitation wavelength is at 470 nm, it has an intense photoluminescence. In addition, the cyclovoltammetric electron transfer is quasi reversible in the electrode reaction of 1, two electrons being involved in the reaction corresponding to Cu(II)=Cu(0)
Assembly reaction of copper(I) chloride, 2,2`-bipyridine-3,3`-dicarboxylic acid (H2L) and 2,2`-bipyridine results in the formation of a new complex [Cu2(C12H6O4N2)2(2,2`-bipy)2] ・CH3OH (1). In 1, two L2− ligands link two Cu(II) ions to form a dinuclear structure. The electrochemical and magnetic properties of 1 were investigated. The results show that the electron transfer is irreversible in the electrode reaction, corresponding to Cu(II)/Cu(0). 1 is paramagnetic and exhibits a weak antiferromagnetic coupling.
Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and PCL/Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) blends are shown to have the potential to be used in a range of biomedical applications and can be processed with successive in-situ polymerization procedures. In this paper, the thermomechanical analysis of PCL and PCL/PVP blends was performed using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The storage and loss moduli as a function of temperature and frequency were recorded. The nonisothermal crystallization kinetics of PCL and PCL/PVP blends were analyzed using Ozawa model and Mo-Liu equation, a combination equation of Avrami and Ozawa formulas. The Ozawa analysis failed to describe the nonisothermal crystallization behavior of blends, whereas the Mo-Liu equation successfully described the nonisothermal crystallization kinetics of PCL and PCL/PVP blends. In addition, the value of crystallization rate coefficient under nonisothermal crystallization conditions was calculated. The PCL/PVP blends compared with the pure PCL and PVP had a restrain effect on the crystallization kinetics of PCL in the blends. Combining the results of DMA and DSC, PVP effectively decreased the crystallinity of PCL and enhanced its damping properties, which indicated that PCL/PVP blends could be more suitable than PCL in some biomedical applications, as it might help in the dissipation of the mechanical energy generated by the patient movements.
As an important plateau cereal crop, hulless barley is the principal food for the Tibetan people in China. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) is considered as the key enzyme for starch biosynthesis in plants. In this study, cDNAs encoding the small subunit (SSU I) and large subunit (LSU I) of AGPase were isolated from hulless barley. The results showed that SSU I and LSU I were 1438 and 1786 bp in length with a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 1419 and 1572 bp. The ORF-encoded polypeptides of 472 and 523 amino acids were having calculated molecular masses of 52.01 and 58.23 kDa, and the pI values were 5.59 and 6.30. In addition, phylogenetic analysis showed that SSU I and LSU I had the same phylogenetic trends with some species. Furthermore, expression levels in different growth periods and tissues of two hulless barley varieties were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Gene expression levels of SSU I and LSU I were consistent with the total starch accumulation rate in endosperm. In conclusion, our data confirmed that SSU I and LSU I played an important role in hulless barley starch synthesis.
A new trinuclear complex Mn3(2,2ʹ-bipy)2(C7H5O3)6 (1) with α-furacrylic acid (HL) and 2,2ʹ- bipyridine as ligands has been synthesized. In 1, six L- anions link three Mn(II) cations to form a trinuclear structure. Each Mn cation is coordinated by six atoms to give a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The luminescence and electrochemical properties of 1 were investigated. Complex 1 exhibits one intense fluorescence emission band at around 498 nm. It is paramagnetic showing weak antiferromagnetic coupling at low temperature. The electron transfer is irreversible in the electrode reaction of 1, one electron being involved in the reduction corresponding to Mn(III)/Mn(II).
In the hematology department, the availability of biomarkers for early detection of infection is difficult to obtain. The present study aimed to compare the diagnostic values of neutrophil CD64 Index, procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) and to determine whether the combined analysis of these biomarkers offer stronger predictive power in the diagnosis for the infection of febrile patients.
Neutrophil CD64 Index, PCT, IL-6 and CRP levels were determined in 356 febrile patients in the hematology ward from May 2013 to May 2015. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, positive and negative predictive values, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) areas under the curve (AUC), and logistic regression analysis were determined to evaluate the diagnostic values of these biomarkers.
The levels of the four biomarkers were higher in the infection patients (p<0.001), and the PCT and IL-6 were higher in the patients with positive microbial blood culture (p<0.01). The neutrophil CD64 Index, PCT, IL-6, CRP had AUCs of 0.95, 0.83, 0.75 and 0.73, respectively. The best cut-off value of the neutrophil CD64 Index to detect infections was 5.06, with high specificity (87.5%) and sensitivity (88.4%). Furthermore, neutrophil CD64 Index, PCT and IL-6 offered the best combination of diagnosis with sensitivity of 93.9% and an AUC of 0.95. In addition, the neutrophil CD64 Index may have a special value to assist the physician to diagnose infection in the neutropenic patients with fever.
The neutrophil CD64 Index is useful for early identification of infections in febrile patients in the hematology department. The combined analysis of the CD64 Index, PCT and IL-6 could further improve its sensitivity.
STGC3 is a novel candidate tumor suppressor gene that was found to be associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) via the cDNA cloning and RACE processes. The biological function of the STGC3 protein and its expression level in nasopharyngeal carcinoma remain unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the STGC3 protein expression level in NPC and to investigate the inhibitory function of STGC3 as a candidate tumor suppressor gene. We assessed the expression of the STGC3 protein in NPC biopsies and normal control specimens via Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. The expression of STGC3 as induced by doxycycline (Dox) via a tetracycline (Tet)-regulated system in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE2 was also established, and the effect of STGC3 restoration on the biological behavior of CNE2 was observed. A reduced level of STGC3 expression (0.978 ± 0.213 versus 0.324 ± 0.185, P < 0.05) was detected in NPC versus normal nasopharyngeal tissue by Western blot assay. Immunohistochemical assays for STGC3 detected positive staining in the nuclei and cytoplasm of epithelial cells, and the positive expression rate in NPC, 8 of 21 (38%), was lower than that in normal nasopharynx samples, 16 of 22 (72%). After STGC3 expression was restored, the growth capacity and clone formation potential of CNE2 cells in soft agar were significantly suppressed, and the cell percentage in G0/G1 phase increased, while the percentage of cells entering the S and G2 phases decreased. This indicates that an abnormality in STGC3 expression is associated with nasopharyngeal carcinogenesis and that it may play an important role in controlling cell growth and regulating the cell cycle.