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  • Author: Zorica Popović x
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C. sanguinea L. is a widespread European shrubby species. It is a potential source of biologically active compounds, especially antioxidants, as indicated by the dogberries’ black color. The aim of the present study was to determine the content of several quercetin derivatives in the dogberries and to evaluate phytogeographical variability of these compounds.

Materials and methods:

The dogberries were collected in the middle of September at two natural habitats of this species: Mt. Avala and Lake Zlatar, Serbia. The extract obtained from fresh fruits was subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis to identify and quantify the content of five quercetin derivatives: quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (Q-3-O-GlcA), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q-3-O-Gal), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (Q-3-O-Rut), quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q-3-O-Glc) and quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (Q-3-O-Rha).


All of examined quercetin derivatives were detected in extract of fresh dogberries and their contents were in the following order: Q-3-O-GlcA>Q-3-O-Gal>Q-3-O-Rut>Q-3-O-Glc>Q-3-O-Rha. The average amount of Q-3-O- Rut varied significantly and depended on the geographic origin of the fruit sample.


These results indicate that dogberries could be a potential source of natural antioxidants, and encourage further investigation of this species considering that it has not yet been exploited in either nutrition or as a source of important pharmacological compounds.


Diarylheptanoids are a group of secondary metabolites widely distributed in the Betulaceae family and characteristic for Alnus species. In this study, the chemotaxonomic power of diarylheptanoids, such as hirsutanonol-5-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, rubranoside A, oregonin, platyphylloside, alnuside A and hirsutanonol, has been investigated in combination with principal component analysis (PCA) for differentiation of Alnus species. Concentrations of six diarylheptanoids in the bark extracts of two natural populations of Alnus glutinosa (black alder) and Alnus incana (gray alder) were determined by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). PCA clearly shows the separation of three groups. Populations I (A. glutinosa) and II (A. incana) both consisted of individuals of the corresponding species. Four individuals from both sampled populations formed a separate group (population III), which possibly represents a hybrid group. Accordingly, diarylheptanoids may serve in combination with PCA as chemotaxonomic markers at the species level, which may also reveal hybrid species.


The reliability of diarylheptanoids as chemotaxonomic markers at inter- and intraspecific levels has been investigated. Six diarylheptanoids were quantified in bark ethanol extracts of four Alnus spp. populations by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The populations described here as locus classicus Alnus glutinosa (I) and locus classicus Alnus incana (III) are clearly differentiated. Compared to population I, individuals in population III have higher extract yields and hirsutanonol-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside content and lower contents of hirsutanonol, rubranoside A and oregonin. Individuals from neighboring populations of A. glutinosa (II) and A. incana (IV) share similar contents of hirsutanonol. All the studied populations exhibit a high intrapopulation variability of the selected diarylheptanoids; they have a heterogeneous chemotype and they partially overlap. The geographical proximity of populations II and IV increases their chemical similarity. Principal component analysis (PCA) clearly shows that the biggest dispersion of individuals lies within population IV. The reason for its heterogeneity might be its physical proximity to population II, i.e. the appearance of hybrids. Also, geometric morphometrics of leaves was performed as a screening criterion for spontaneous hybrids.


Viticulture is an important branch of Serbian agriculture. It has a long tradition, but there is the decreasing trend both in areas under vineyards and in grape production. The analysis intends to answer the question what are the reasons for those trends. The main goal of the paper is to analyse the relationship between the decrease in areas under vineyards and the level of investment effectiveness in this type of production. The paper analyses the influence of the governmental agrarian policy measures onto increase of investments′ effectiveness in vineyard establishment. The government has adopted the measures for subsidising the establishment of vineyards. The research analyses the economic effectiveness of investments by using the calculation of investments as well as dynamic multi-periodic methods of investment analysis (Net Present Value - NPV and Internal Rate of Return - IRR). The data for investment analysis (investments, the value of production, operating costs) have been collected by the farms through the survey made in Central Serbia, while the data on the governmental subsidies have been taken from The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management of the Republic of Serbia. The analysis has shown that investments into vineyards are not profitable without governmental subsidies and support.