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-zoned gypsum precipitated from crater lake effluent to provide a record of volcanic activity from a gypsum stalactite and gypsum cementing the base tephra fall deposit from the 1817 phreato-magmatic eruption, as determined from its trace elemental compositions. We showed the presence of a compositional signal that correlates with the degree of activity at the Kawah Ijen crater lake in Indonesia. Here, we investigate the potential of the complementary record provided by stable isotopes, specifically the 18 O/ 16 O oxygen isotope ratio. In particular, oxygen occurs in two
000 years b.p. to the present, was characterized by several
phreatomagmatic explosions with emplacement of wet and dry
surges, and pyroclastic flows and lahars, enriched in magmatic,
thermalmetamorphic, and sedimentary xenoliths. Finally, late-
stage activity produced the polygenetic Albano maar, consisting
of five phreatomagmatic units (Funiciello et al. 2003). These
last units are characterized by parallel to cross-bedded, ash- to
lapilli-sized surge and fallout deposits with abundant accretionary
lapilli and sedimentary xenoliths (Brigatti et al. 2005
Introduction Rosia Montana is a former mining area in the Apuseni Mountains (part of the Western Romanian Carpathians), belonging to the Golden Quadrilateral , one of the most important gold-producing areas in Europe. The volcanogenic complex from Rosia Montana is considered as a maar-diatreme structure, mainly consisting of clastic rocks created by successive phases of volcanic activity ( 1 ). The occasional contact between the ascending magma and the shallow aquifers has produced a large pile of phreatomagmatic breccias. Two main dacitic bodies, locally
andesitic composition, dated at 9.3 ± 0.47 Ma
(Roşu et al. 1997) cover the northern and eastern part of Roşia
Montana area (Fig. 2). Mineralized and barren phreatomagmatic
breccia structures as well as hydrothermal breccias are wide-
spread at ore deposit scale (Tămaş 2010).
Alburnite was discovered in the Cârnicel vein, an intermediate
sulfidation structure located in the southern part of Cârnic mas-
sif at Roşia Montana. The vein is accessible only underground
FiGure 1. (a) General map of the Carpathians and the Apuseni Mountains; (b) location of Roşia Montana ore