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/Ar geochronological studies in the Pannonian-Carpathians-Dinarides (PANCARDI) region, Acta Geologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 2001, 44, 281–301 [4] [4] Seghedi I., Downes H., Vaselli O., Szakács A., Balogh K., Pécskay Z., Post-collisional Tertiary-Quaternary mafic alkalic magmatism in the Carpathian-Pannonian region: a review, Tectonophysics, 2004, 393, 43–62 [5] [5] Martin U., Németh K., Mio/Pliocene phreatomagmatic volcanism in the western Pannonian Basin, Geologica Hungarica Series Geologica, Geological Institute of Hungary

., MARTIN U., 2002, Pliocene crater lake deposits and soft-sediment deformation structures associated with a phreatomagmatic volcano: Pula maar, western Hungary. Geologica Carpathica, 53 (ISSN 1335–0552). STANKOWSKI W.T.J., 2001, The geology and morphology of the natural reserve “Meteoryt Morasko”. Planetary and Space Science, 49: 749–753. STANKOWSKI, W.T.J., 2011, Rezerwat meteoryt Morasko – morfogeneza kosmiczna zagłębień terenu. Landform analysis, 16: 149–154. STANKOWSKI W.T.J., MUSZYŃSKI A., KLIMM K., SCHLIESTEDT M., 2002, Mineralogy of Morasko Meteorite and structure

. Radiation Measurements 41(7–8): 942–947, DOI 10.1016/j.radmeas.2006.04.023. [54] White JDL, 1996. Impure coolants and interaction dynamics of phreatomagmatic eruptions. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 74(3–4): 155–170, DOI 10.1016/S0377-0273(96)00061-3. [55] Wintle AG, 1973. Anomalous fading of thermoluminescence in mineral samples. Nature 245(5421): 143–144, DOI 10.1038/245143a0. [56] Yokoo A, Taniguchi H, Goto A and Oshima H

. Geoth. Res., 2003, 127, 121–152 [15] Houghton B.F., Hackett W.R., Strombolian and phreatomagmatic deposits of Ohakune Craters, Ru-apehu, New Zealand; a complex interaction between external water and rising basaltic magma. J. Volcanol. Geoth. Res., 1984, 21, 207–231 [16] Houghton B.F., Schmincke H.U., Rothenberg scoria cone, East Eifel; a complex strombolian and phreatomagmatic volcano. B. Volcanol. 1989, 52, 28–48 [17] Houghton B

, Hungary. Part 1: mineral chemistry, thermobarometry and petrology. Contrib. Mineral. Petr., 2003, 144, 652–670. [17] Wijbrans J., Nemeth K., Martin U., Balogh K., 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of Neogene phreatomagmatic volcanism in the western Pannonian Basin, Hungary. J Volcanol. Geoth. Res., 2007, 164, 193–204. [18] Kempton P.D., Downes H., Embey-Isztin, A., Mafic granulite xenoliths in Neogene alkali basalts from the western Pannonian Basin: insights into the lower crust of a collapsed orogen. J. Petrol., 1997, 38, 941–970. [19] Dobosi G., Kempton P.D., Downes H

Geochem. Geophys. Geosys 2017 10.1002/2017GC007178 [21] Lorenz V., Maars and diatremes of phreatomagmatic origin, a review. T. Geol. Soc. South Africa., 1985, 88, 459-470 Lorenz V. Maars and diatremes of phreatomagmatic origin, a review T. Geol. Soc. South Africa 1985 88 459 470 [22] Orton G.J., Volcanic Environments. In: Reading H.G., Sedimentary Environments: Processes, Facies and Stratigraphy., 1996, 688 Orton G.J. Volcanic Environments Reading H.G. Sedimentary Environments: Processes Facies and Stratigraphy 1996 688 [23] Kereszturi G., Csillag G., Németh K., Sebe

-zoned gypsum precipitated from crater lake effluent to provide a record of volcanic activity from a gypsum stalactite and gypsum cementing the base tephra fall deposit from the 1817 phreato-magmatic eruption, as determined from its trace elemental compositions. We showed the presence of a compositional signal that correlates with the degree of activity at the Kawah Ijen crater lake in Indonesia. Here, we investigate the potential of the complementary record provided by stable isotopes, specifically the 18 O/ 16 O oxygen isotope ratio. In particular, oxygen occurs in two

000 years b.p. to the present, was characterized by several phreatomagmatic explosions with emplacement of wet and dry surges, and pyroclastic flows and lahars, enriched in magmatic, thermalmetamorphic, and sedimentary xenoliths. Finally, late- stage activity produced the polygenetic Albano maar, consisting of five phreatomagmatic units (Funiciello et al. 2003). These last units are characterized by parallel to cross-bedded, ash- to lapilli-sized surge and fallout deposits with abundant accretionary lapilli and sedimentary xenoliths (Brigatti et al. 2005

Introduction Rosia Montana is a former mining area in the Apuseni Mountains (part of the Western Romanian Carpathians), belonging to the Golden Quadrilateral , one of the most important gold-producing areas in Europe. The volcanogenic complex from Rosia Montana is considered as a maar-diatreme structure, mainly consisting of clastic rocks created by successive phases of volcanic activity ( 1 ). The occasional contact between the ascending magma and the shallow aquifers has produced a large pile of phreatomagmatic breccias. Two main dacitic bodies, locally

andesitic composition, dated at 9.3 ± 0.47 Ma (Roşu et al. 1997) cover the northern and eastern part of Roşia Montana area (Fig. 2). Mineralized and barren phreatomagmatic breccia structures as well as hydrothermal breccias are wide- spread at ore deposit scale (Tămaş 2010). Alburnite was discovered in the Cârnicel vein, an intermediate sulfidation structure located in the southern part of Cârnic mas- sif at Roşia Montana. The vein is accessible only underground FiGure 1. (a) General map of the Carpathians and the Apuseni Mountains; (b) location of Roşia Montana ore