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7 Jesko Fezer · Martin Schmitz The Work of Lucius Burckhardt Lucius Burckhardt was bold for he claimed that design is invisible. He was exasperating for he asked why landscape is beautiful. He was persistent for he doggedly asked who actually plans the plan- ning. He was egalitarian for he addressed issues such as “livability” and everyday life. He was provocative. He declared the night and dirt to be a focus of his research. He was realistic insofar as he es- tablished that to build or to design is a process. He was rebellious for he made a science out of

Venedig 2000 „Gartenkunst wohin?“ fragte noch in den achtziger Jahren der Schweizer Soziologe Lucius Burckhardt und beklagte die Verbreitung einer unreflektierten, sinnentleerten Gartengestaltung, die sich ihrer Verantwortung für die Lesbarkeit der Welt nicht mehr bewusst zu sein schien. • Mit der wieder gewonnenen gestalterischen Freiheit ist heu- te aber auch ein erhebliches Mehr an Verantwortung verbunden, und angesichts der medial verbreiteten Bildflut stellt sich dringlicher denn je die Grundsatzfrage, ob die Landschaftsarchitektur zum belanglosen

one-sided emphasis on protecting and maintaining nature, for something over a decade now landscape architecture has been committing itself freely to its creative task – and at the same time taking a renewed interest in the history of garden art. The Swiss sociologist Lucius Burckhardt asked “Whither garden art?” in the eighties, and bemoaned the spread of unthinking, meaningless gar- den design that no longer seemed aware of its responsibility to make the world intelligible. • But now that creative freedom has been re- gained responsibility has increased

1994 Burbury, John (1671), A Relation of a Journey from London to Vienna and thence to Constantinople, London 1671 Burckhardt, Lucius (Hg.) (1978), Der Werkbund in Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz, Stuttgart 1978 Burgerstein, Alfred (1906), Wiener Gärten im 16. Jahrhundert, in: Österreichische Garten-Zeitung, 1. Jg., 1906, S. 261 ff. Burgerstein, Alfred (1907), Die k. k. Gartenbau-Gesellschaft in Wien, Wien 1907 Burgerstein, Alfred (1919), Aus Wiener Gärten des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts, in: Alt-Wiener Kalender für das Jahr 1919, Wien 1919, S. 79 ff


~ SpringerWienNewYork SpringerWienNewYork Jesko Fezer · Martin Schmitz (Eds.) Lucius Burckhardt Wri t ings. Rethinking Man-made Environments Politics, Landscape & Design Editors Jesko Fezer, D–Berlin/Hamburg Martin Schmitz, D–Berlin We thank Annemarie Burckhardt (1930-2012) for her many suggestions and steadfast support. This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically those of translation, reprinting, re-use of

281 Biography Lucius Burckhardt, born in Davos in 1925, PhD in Basel, was, as of 1955, scientific assistant at the Social Research Center of Münster University in Dortmund. After a guest lectureship at Ulm School of Design in 1959, he undertook several teaching assignments from 1961 to 1973 and later on guest lectureships in sociology at Archi- tecture Department of ETH Zurich. From 1962 to 1973, he simultaneously worked as editor-in-chief of the journal “Werk”. From 1976 to 1983, Lucius Burckhardt was First President of German Werkbund, as of 1973


Content Preface: The Work of Lucius Burckhardt 7 Urban Planning and Democracy (1957) 27 Ulm Anno 5. The Curriculum of the Ulm School of Design (1960) 35 Building—A Process with No Obligations to Heritage Preservation (1967) 44 On the Value and Meaning of Urban Utopias (1968) 63 From Design Academicism to the Treatment of Wicked Problems (1973) 77 Who Plans the Planning? (1974) 85 Family and Home—Two Adaptable Systems (1975) 102 Urban Design and Its Significance for Residents (1975) 115 Gardening—An Art and A Necessity (1977) 123 Why Is Landscape Beautiful

brief digression on the topic of why we did not use to be bored of seeing always one and the same land- scape? Of course we also played cards and plotted schemes, but the answer to the riddle occurred to me during a stay on the Furka: the Landscape-theoretical watercolor drawing by Lucius Burckhardt, untitled. The atomic power station becomes part of an idyllic landscape… 228 weather used to take care of changing the scenery, for we had not yet established that one-sided relationship with the weather such as is shaped by the eternally blue sky of our travel

Rome, in the Cardinals’ Palace district; or we are on a nine- teenth-century boulevard in a commercial and administrative dis- trict; or we are in a park whose genesis we are able to date, and are 1 The “Founder Epoch” refers to the early phase of industrialization and eco- nomic growth in Germany and Austria, before the stock market crash of 1873. Voilà ce qu’on peut dire: nos bâtiments vont bien partout! This much one can say: our buildings work wherever one puts them! Drawing: Lucius Burckhardt 241 arriving now at the palace. The architectural statement, the