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Burckhardt, who in his Cicerone in- terpreted the Naples Portrait of Caracalla as embodiment of Satan. 12 But let us turn our backs on the Devil for now and confront the por- trait directly instead: Its characteristic elements are the short cropped hair with single curls, the pathognomonic facial expression with accentuated facial furrows and the strong leftwards rotation of the head, which means that the right profile is the main view. The first ruler-type has invited many different interpretations. These have ranged from the representation of a cruel despot to

, 213n.7, 219n.34 Borgia, Giovanni, 196n.7 Brutus, Lucius Junius, 155–56, 170 Brutus, Marcus Junius, 74, 83, 88 Buondelmonti, Zanobi, 213n.12 Burckhardt, Jacob, 195n.4, 196n.7, 199n.30, 199n.32, 214n.19, 214n.22 Caesar, Julius, 153, 164; marty- dom of, 88–89; as tyrant, 62, 67–80, 103; virtue and, 82; as youth, 88–95 Camillus, 38, 48, 84, 151–52, 188, 198n.19, 200n.40, 215n.5 Captains, Roman, 148–53, 165, 171 Capua, 96–97, 210n.22 Cassirer, Ernst, 103, 205n.30 Cassius, Spurius, 83, 208n.13 Cato Priscus, 12, 164 Catulus, 219n.35 Chabod, Federico, 195n.2 Charles VIII

 undertake with impunity any action that  12See Spaeth 1990 and esp. Linderski 2002. 13Ungern  Sternberg  von  Pürkel  1970,  55–67;  Stockton  1979,  176–205;  Burckhardt 1988, 135–41; Nippel 1988, 71–79, 84; Lintott 1994, 77–86, and  1999a, 89–93. 86  Section v he saw fit. It is also notable that such decrees never seem to  have named a specific threat or group of enemies as a target.  Rather, the decree was a more abstract expression of senato- rial concern and of a generalized support for those already in  executive offices to “defend Rome’s republic.” It is ironic, in

. T. A. Dorey, 1–38. London. ———. 1970. Lucius Sulla: The Deadly Reformer. Todd Memorial Lecture 7. Sydney. ———. 1972. “Tiberius Gracchus and the Beginning of the Roman Revolution.” ANRW I.1: 668–731. ———. 1983. Publicans and Sinners: Private Enterprise in the Ser- vice of the Roman Republic. Ithaca, NY. ———. 1984. “The Death of Saturninus: Studies in Chronology and Prosopography,” Chiron 14: 101–47. ———. 1990. “The Consuls, 179–49 BC.” Chiron 20: 371–413. ———. 1996. “Tribuni Plebis and Res Publica.” In Imperium sine fine: T. Robert S. Broughton and the Roman

) 311-335. "Crepereius Calpurnianus," Quaderni Urbinati di Cultura Classica 27 (1978) 211-213. Balsdon, J. P. V. D. Romans and Aliens. London and Chapel Hill, 1979- Barigazzi, Α., ed. Favorino di Arelate: Opere. Florence, 1966. Barnes, T. D. "Hadrian and Lucius Verus," JRS 57 (1967) 65-79- Beaudouin, M., and E. Pottier. "Inscriptions de Pompeiopolis," BCH 4 (1880) 77-78. Becker, O. Das Bild des Weges und verwandte Vorstellungen im frühgriechischen Denken. Hermes Einzelschrift 4. Berlin, 1937. Bellinger, A. R. "Lucian's Dramatic Technique," Yale Classical

the emperors in another way and would give it a sharp relevance. The reign of Marcus Aurelius, which roughly coincided with Lucian's residence in Athens, was a period of political turbulence there, marked particularly by attacks on the aging Herodes Atticus. Marcus and Lucius tried in 165 to reform the Areopagus and to purge intrusive elements, and events of the subsequent years, above all the devastation of the great plague, moved Marcus to issue a long decision in which he tried both to exclude the unworthy from posi- tions of prestige and to assure the

., 173 Bruun, P., 140 Budios of Stobi, 194 Burckhardt, J., 4 Burgess, R., 155–56 Byblos, 237 Byzacena, 220 Byzantium, 103, 161–62. See also Constantinople Caecilianus of Carthage, 176, 204, 247–52 Caesarea Maritima, Palestine, 274–75 Caesarea-Mazaca, Cappadocia, 103–4, 168, 244 Calder, W. M., 96 Callixeine, priestess, 105–6 Calocaerus, usurper, 43 Cameron, A., 76–77 Campania, 225–28 Campo della Fiera, 121–22 Capernaum, 154 Capitoline Hill, 231 Capua, 148, 185 table 3, 227, 338 n. 1 Caracalla, 151–52 Carnuntum, Council of (308), 31 Carrhae, 104 Carterius of Antaradus

, Anthony, x Bomilcar, 107 Bourdieu, Pierre, 205 Brecht, Bertolt, 188 bribery, 82–83, 92–102, 104 Brooks, Peter, 89, 183 Brunt, P. A., 19, 32, 38, 44 Brutus, 40, 90 Bryskett, Lodowick, 204 Burckhardt, Jacob, 14 Burgh, James, 3, 9 Burke, William, 9 Bush, George W., 100 Butler, Judith, 106, 119–21 Caecilius, 162 Caesar, Julius, 21, 44, 58–59, 71, 87, 90, 168, 171, 176, 178–201 Calhoun, Craig, xi Cambridge History of Greek and Roman Politi- cal Thought, 6 Cambridge School republicanism, 57 capitalism, xivn9 Caro, Anthony, 23 Carthage, 74–75 Cassius (conspirator against

Scholz, Walter 2013 = Cic. Div. 1.72. 132. On the Italic lot oracles, see especially Champeaux 1986, 1987, 1990. 133. Rawson 1974, 157– 8; Wiseman 1994; Bendlin 2002. 134. Suetonius, Life of Augustus 31, 1. 135. See Bleicken 1981. 136. Gladigow 1977, 20. 137. It is striking that the greatest act of disavowal, Bibulus’s boycott of politics aimed against C. Iulius Caesar, was associated with a permanent obnuntiatio (Cicero, On his house 40; Suet. Iul. 20.1 et passim). Cf. however, Scheid 2012a. 138. See Burckhardt 1988, 192. 139. Linderski 1986, 2162– 68. See

terminology, see especially Alföldy, 1981, 207ff. (= idem, 1986b, 162ff., with addenda, 200ff.); idem, 1986b, 67, 72ff. with a critical discussion of Vittinghoff, 1994, and Kolb, 1982; Cf. Rilinger, 1985, 299ff.; Nicolet, 1984. Recent research on the problem of conceptualization was documented and discussed in detail by Burckhardt, 1990, and Goldmann, 2002. 9 Cf. the detailed studies by Dondin-Payre, 1993 (on the Acilii Glabriones), and Hof- mann-Löbl, 1996 (on the Calpurnii Pisones). Settipani, 2000, especially 1ff. and 76ff., stresses the general continuity of