Burckhardt, who in his Cicerone in-
terpreted the Naples Portrait of Caracalla as embodiment of Satan.
But let us turn our backs on the Devil for now and confront the por-
trait directly instead: Its characteristic elements are the short cropped hair
with single curls, the pathognomonic facial expression with accentuated
facial furrows and the strong leftwards rotation of the head, which means
that the right profile is the main view.
The first ruler-type has invited many different interpretations. These
have ranged from the representation of a cruel despot to
undertake with impunity any action that
12See Spaeth 1990 and esp. Linderski 2002.
13Ungern Sternberg von Pürkel 1970, 55–67; Stockton 1979, 176–205;
Burckhardt 1988, 135–41; Nippel 1988, 71–79, 84; Lintott 1994, 77–86, and
86 Section v
he saw fit. It is also notable that such decrees never seem to
have named a specific threat or group of enemies as a target.
Rather, the decree was a more abstract expression of senato-
rial concern and of a generalized support for those already in
executive offices to “defend Rome’s republic.” It is ironic, in
T. A. Dorey, 1–38. London.
———. 1970. Lucius Sulla: The Deadly Reformer. Todd Memorial
Lecture 7. Sydney.
———. 1972. “Tiberius Gracchus and the Beginning of the Roman
Revolution.” ANRW I.1: 668–731.
———. 1983. Publicans and Sinners: Private Enterprise in the Ser-
vice of the Roman Republic. Ithaca, NY.
———. 1984. “The Death of Saturninus: Studies in Chronology
and Prosopography,” Chiron 14: 101–47.
———. 1990. “The Consuls, 179–49 BC.” Chiron 20: 371–413.
———. 1996. “Tribuni Plebis and Res Publica.” In Imperium sine
fine: T. Robert S. Broughton and the Roman
"Crepereius Calpurnianus," Quaderni Urbinati di Cultura Classica 27
Balsdon, J. P. V. D. Romans and Aliens. London and Chapel Hill, 1979-
Barigazzi, Α., ed. Favorino di Arelate: Opere. Florence, 1966.
Barnes, T. D. "Hadrian and Lucius Verus," JRS 57 (1967) 65-79-
Beaudouin, M., and E. Pottier. "Inscriptions de Pompeiopolis," BCH 4 (1880)
Becker, O. Das Bild des Weges und verwandte Vorstellungen im frühgriechischen
Denken. Hermes Einzelschrift 4. Berlin, 1937.
Bellinger, A. R. "Lucian's Dramatic Technique," Yale Classical
the emperors in another way and would
give it a sharp relevance. The reign of Marcus Aurelius, which roughly
coincided with Lucian's residence in Athens, was a period of political
turbulence there, marked particularly by attacks on the aging Herodes
Atticus. Marcus and Lucius tried in 165 to reform the Areopagus and
to purge intrusive elements, and events of the subsequent years, above
all the devastation of the great plague, moved Marcus to issue a long
decision in which he tried both to exclude the unworthy from posi-
tions of prestige and to assure the
Scholz, Walter 2013 = Cic. Div. 1.72.
132. On the Italic lot oracles, see especially Champeaux 1986, 1987, 1990.
133. Rawson 1974, 157– 8; Wiseman 1994; Bendlin 2002.
134. Suetonius, Life of Augustus 31, 1.
135. See Bleicken 1981.
136. Gladigow 1977, 20.
137. It is striking that the greatest act of disavowal, Bibulus’s boycott of politics aimed
against C. Iulius Caesar, was associated with a permanent obnuntiatio (Cicero, On his house
40; Suet. Iul. 20.1 et passim). Cf. however, Scheid 2012a.
138. See Burckhardt 1988, 192.
139. Linderski 1986, 2162– 68. See
terminology, see especially Alföldy,
1981, 207ff. (= idem, 1986b, 162ff., with addenda, 200ff.); idem, 1986b, 67, 72ff. with a
critical discussion of Vittinghoff, 1994, and Kolb, 1982; Cf. Rilinger, 1985, 299ff.; Nicolet,
1984. Recent research on the problem of conceptualization was documented and discussed
in detail by Burckhardt, 1990, and Goldmann, 2002.
9 Cf. the detailed studies by Dondin-Payre, 1993 (on the Acilii Glabriones), and Hof-
mann-Löbl, 1996 (on the Calpurnii Pisones). Settipani, 2000, especially 1ff. and 76ff.,
stresses the general continuity of