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same again in Dodds (1965) 132, "one reason for the success of Christianity was simply the weakness and weariness of the opposition"; similarly in Piganiol (1972) 259, more diffusely in Burckhardt and Seeck quoted by Lucius (1908) 147^ in Cumont (1929) 38f, and in Nocks assessment in the CAH XII (1939) 449. For the denial of a material decline in the period crucial to the church's triumph, the fourth century, a phenomenon often thought to have underlain a religious or spiritual decline, see Thebert (1983) 103, very definite about Africa (the debate is now "closed

, 270, 274, 284 Antigonus II (Hasmonean king), 24, 149 Antioch, 124, 163, 336, 348, 373 Antiochus (abbot of Monas­ tery of St. Sabas), 271 Antiochus IV Epiphanes, 9, 165, 185, 208, 213 Antipater, son of Herod the Great, 313 Antipater, son of Herod the great, 26 Antonia, 23, 196, 215-17, 220, 223, 228, 229, 246- 53, 256-57, 258 Antoninus, son of Lucius Septimius Severus (called Caracalla), 100, 151 Antoninus Pius, 67 Antonius, 107 Antonius, Marcus. See Mark Antony Apamea on the Orontes, 160 Aphrodite, 4-5, 36 Aphrodito papyri, 201 'Apiru, 23

, 266, 324, 329 Bulgaria, 89 Bulut, Aziz, 429 Bunyan, John, 440 Bur Ramman, 34, 36 Buran, 175, 216 Burbank, 416 Burckhardt, Johann Ludwig, 102 Burkitt, Francis, 475 Buryats, 330 Burzoy, 290 Butros I, Maronite Patriarch, 312 Buxtorf, Johannes the Elder, 459 Buxtorf, Johannes the Younger, 459 Byblos, 6, 8, 11 script of, 8–9 Byzantine Empire, 119, 124, 139, 144, 153, 169, 171, 175, 176, 190, 196, 197, 199, 202, 203, 205, 208, 211, 218, 220, 221, 222, 236, 250, 260, 265, 270, 516 INTRODUCTION TO ARAMEAN AND SYRIAC STUDIES 272, 275, 290, 291, 307

Marine dans le Corpus. (5) Plut arque, De Is. et Os., 52, 32, 38 ; Diodore de Sicile, I, 25. (6) Plutarque, lbid., 53, 58, 64; Apulée, Métam , XI, p. 324. (7) Voyez, p. ex., C. I. L., II, 3386, Isis puellaris. (8) Cfr. la fin du discours d'Isis à Lucius dans les Métam,., d'Apulée, XI, p , 332 à 334. — 56 — quelles la déesse astreignait ses fidèles adoratrices, il ne paraît pas que ses temples aient joui d'une grande réputation de sainteté. Les pratiques de la dévotion s'accordent fort bien avec les entraînements de la mondanité, et ce n'est pas seu- lement

: 439, 452, 462, 473, 483; XII: 96 Bunners, Christian 545 Buoninsegna IX: 1 1 1 f Burckhardt, Carl Jacob XII: 1 44; XVI: 213 Burckhardt, Jacob VI: 353; VII: 173 f, 238; VIII: 307, 352, 366, 394, 4 1 0, 55� IX: 1 04, 1 06 Burdach XV: 264 Buren, Paul van VI: 444; VIII: 657 Burger, Ewald IX: 1 38 f Burgess, Joseph XIII: 280 Burggraf, Julius X: 349 Burghart, Hermann Georg X: 230, 259; XII: 47, 59; XIII: 1 64; XV: 43 Burgwitz, Martin XV: 1 3 5 ; XVI: 594 Burlage, Wilhe1m VIII: 224, 660 Burlingham, R. E. XII: 75, 9 1 , 1 06, 522 f; XIII: 1 6 1 , 198

rulers of Emesa were bearers of Hellenistic culture, and in political terms, were in the orbit of Roman in- fluence. They were deeply involved in the empire’s political and military affairs, both in the East and in Rome itself, where they often achieved the positions of senator, consul, and centurion. The Emesan Princess Julia Domna was the wife of Emperor Lucius Septimius Severus (146–211) and the mother of emperors Geta and Caracal- la. In 218, the Roman legions stationed in Syria proclaimed emperor Julia Dom- na’s 14–year-old great-nephew, who at that time held

[of sixth century B.C. Greek]…; or by Plato, with his portrait of Socrates;⁷⁶ or in the Hellenistic age; or by the Roman poets; or by the Antonines; or by Augustine. Per- haps he had been there all the time, lurking in Homer’s Achilles and Odysseus. Still, he had evidently fled away again by the early Middle Ages, only to be rediscovered first in [the elev- enth or the twelfth century]…; then, according to Burckhardt’s famous analysis, in Renais- sance Italy; then again in the sixteenth, or seventeenth, or eighteenth centuries (Pelling 1990, V).⁷⁷ Additionally, the

, Jean 228 Anm. 66 Bonifatius IX. (Papst) 170 Bonsignori, Giovanni dei 4, 195f., 199f., 201, 204f. Boranowski, Hierotheus 12 Borckeloo, Harmen van 208f., 228 Botticelli, Sandro 157 Anm. 8 Bourdieu, Pierre 19f. Bracciolini, Poggio 204 Brenninger, Martin 83 Breu, Jörg 89 Brivio Giuseppe 117 Anm. 2 Bruni, Leonardo 98 Anm. 24 Bucer, Martin 245, 246 Anm. 46 Büchlein, Paul s. Fagius, Paul Bumke, Joachim 24 Burchardi, Franz 12 Burckhardt, Jacob 218 Burghartz, Susanna 251f., 270, 273 Buroner, Paul Heinrich 101 Anm. 2

, Carl 633 Brakelmann, Günter 105 Brandl, Alois 853 Brentano, Lujo 853 Breuer, Josef 602 Briand, Aristide 326, 654 Brieger, Theodor 60, 370 f. Brocke, Bernhard von 445 Brosses, Charles de 978, 978 Bruckmann, Peter 674 Bruder, Adolf 404 Brückner, Wilhelm 706 Brunner, Emil 811 Bruno, Giordano 458, 1021 Buber, Martin 716, 764, 771 Buchenau, Arthur 608 Budde, Karl 62, 299, 522 Bülow, Bernhard von 99 Buhmann, Hans Karl Emil 44, 98–100 Buisson, Ferdinand 380, 380, 381 Buonaiuti, Ernesto 634 f. Personenregister 1223 Burckhardt, Jacob 72, 369, 369, 473, 473, 616, 1071, 1071