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Direct electrostatic coating of paper Robert H. Marchessault, Patrice Rioux and Ilie Saracovan, Keywords: Coated papers, Polyolefins, Poly-P-hydroxyal- kanoates, Electrostatic coating, Corona discharge, Xerogra- phy, Toners, Adhesive strength, Barrier properties, Moisture transmission. SUMMARY: Direct Electrostatic Coating (DEC) of paper uses "as polymerized" reactor polyolefin and an electrostatic spraying applicator. A glossyltransparent polymer coat was obtained after hot-pressing the electrostatically deposited pow- der layer on the paper surface

- ing process. However, since the work-piece wood often does not have a sufficient electrical conductivity, the electrostatic procedures only are applied in special cases. The electrostatic coating of chairs and windows is known. The chairs are coated electrostatically in so-called omega loops by means of high speed rotational discs. In practice, however, the components have to be finished manually depending on the geometry of the components. The not always homogeneous wood moisture of ≥ 8 % as well as the continuous assurance of the ground con- tact during the

necessary voltage by friction of the powder at the spray units (see Chapter 4.2.2). The currents generated during application are in the µA range and are Safety, Environmental Protection and Health 624 BASF Handbook Basics of Coating Technology E nv ir on m en t non-critical. However, extensive charging may occur if all live parts are not earthed. The same also applies to the operators who must therefore wear conductive footwear and operate on conductive floors. Explosion and Fire Protection There is a risk of explosion in electrostatic coating lines if the following

. Consequently, influences ari- sing from fluctuations in materials under different ambient conditions of temperature or relative humidity are hard to compensate for. A further disadvantage is the only moderate output performance of approx. 1.5 g/min per 1 cm edge length. Figure 4.2.56: Low-speed bells and discs Paint Processing BASF Handbook Basics of Coating Technology 527 A pp lic at io n To exploit the advantages of high paint yield at higher material output, equipment for electrostatic coating was developed which regulated the process via material dispensing. A more

to 10 –8 S/cm. Polyurethane coatings also fall within this range. The electrostatic coating processes can be divided into three cate- gories, depending on the atomization and electrostatic charging mechanisms: the electro- static compressed air and the hydraulic (airless) process, the electrostatic atomizing pro- cess, and the high-speed rotation process. [39] Electrostatic spray guns atomize the coating material by the same mechanism as conventional spray guns, but the coating droplets receive an electrostatic charge as well. Nearly all coatings can be sprayed

” 2655. Most European coatings lines for exterior plastics, however, use the standardized hard- ener from the clear coat also to crosslink the hydroprimer, yet with lower crosslink den- sity. Most water-borne primers in Europe also contained small amounts of N-methyl pyrro- lidone (NMP) as co-solvent improving wetting and adhesion. Recent changes [88] in labelling rules for mixtures containing such co-solvent led to a phase out of NMP and reformulation of respective hydroprimers. Conductive primers are required for the electrostatic coating of plastic components

. electrically conducting varnishes: They have the function to provide a nonconductive substrate with an electrically conducting layer. This need depends on different technological requirements. A good exam- ple is the application of conductive primers for plastics. They contain 65electrodeposition coating conductive pigments, like carbon black or micas, coated with a tin/ antimony oxide layer, and are used to make possible the electrostatic coating of non-conductive plastic work pieces. electrochemical series: Classification system, mainly used for metals, which ranges

. Pimchuai A , Dutta A , Basu P . Torrefaction of agriculture residue to enhance combustible properties . Energy Fuel 2010 ; 24 : 4638 – 45 . 10.1021/ef901168f 17. Szafran RG , Ludwig W , Kmiec A. New spout-fluid bed apparatus for electrostatic coating of fine particles and encapsulation . Powder Technol 2012 ; 225 : 52 – 7 . 10.1016/j.powtec.2012.03.031 18. Li R , Zhong Z , Jin B. Influence of reaction conditions and red brick on fast pyrolysis of rice residue (husk and straw) in a spout-fluid bed . Can J Chem Eng 2012a ; 90 : 1202 – 11 . 10.1002/cjce.20623 19

. Chemical composition of coated 1 : 105 paper surfaces determined by means of ESCA Interactions between dissolved and 1:226 colloidal substances and a cationic fixing agent in mechanical pulp suspensions Sundberg, A. Ekman, R. Holmbom, B. Sundberg, K. Thornton, J. Marchessault, R.H.Direct electrostatic coating of 1:211 Rioux, P. paper Saracovan, I. Sundstrom, L. Fibrillation and its importance for 4:379 Middleton, S. R. Partial umen loading 1 :204 Scallan, A. M. Brolin, A. the properties of mechanical pulp Hartler, N. fiber sheet Neimo, L