The article discusses the ways Czesław Miłosz’s perception of genres evolved starting from his early literary career in Poland (1934-1945) until the year 1968 in California, when his famous manifesto Ars poetica? appeared. In this poem, he ultimately rejected a traditional perception of literature, defined as texts distinguished for their specific features or as a repertoire of norms in favor of literature aggregating all possible discourses, forms and styles. The paper demonstrates how his acquisition of Hebrew and Greek as well as his encounter with Allen Ginsberg’s poetry influenced his understanding of genres and his literary goals. The intellectual solitude of the exilic poet freed him from the thematic and formal expectations of his audience in communist Poland, where literature was being censored and émigré authors were the only voices of the voiceless. Not only did Miłosz avoid being a political voice, but he used circumstances of his life to absorb twentieth-century discourses in order to provide a literary testimony to his epoch.
The article traces the impact of Czesław Miłosz’s first American stay on his image of Central Europe in Rodzinna Europa [Native Realm]. In the United States, the post-war immigrant from Vilnius learned to perceive, understand and evaluate American culture; he also gained a new perspective on his region of Europe and Slavic immigrants. This experience enabled him to adopt an American point of view in his autobiographical essay. Following William Faulkner, Miłosz carries on an analysis of Eastern and Central Europe’s history and identities. The uses Western historical and sociological glossary to describe processes that formed his “native realm.” Analogically, the poet from pre-war Vilnius reflects on American multi-ethnicity and religious diversity from a Central European perspective. In Rodzinna Europa, Miłosz takes the position of a migrant translator and a two-way mediator between East and West.
Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Upper Silesia
Faunistic research conducted in Poland for over 80 years has led to the discovery of 143 species of scale insects that live in the natural environment. The state of knowledge of the coccoid fauna of individual areas is uneven, however, 83 species of scale insects from 8 families were collected in Upper Silesia (Górny Śląsk). Upper Silesia is the region in Poland with the fourth-largest number of species; it is preceded by the Kraków-Wieluń Upland (94 species), Roztocze (88) and the Świętokrzyskie Mts. (86). Two of the species collected in this area - Trionymus hamberdi and Volvicoccus stipae - are known only from this region. The paper gives a list of scale insect species collected in Upper Silesia together with information on their localities.
In two experiments on rats it was analyzed whether the lowering rate of postprandial glycaemia depends on the degree of polymerization of strawberry ellagitannins (ET). Two types of highly-concentrated polyphenolic extracts were used, one rich in monomeric ET (ETM; 94.9% polyphenols and 67% ETM in it), the second in dimeric ET (ETD; 95.9% polyphenols, and 78.0% ETD in it). The experiment 1 comprised three oral sugar tolerance tests, GTT (with glucose; to examine monosaccharide transport across epithelium), SuTT (with sucrose; to examine the activity of mucosal disaccharidase) and StTT (with starch; to examine the action of salivary alpha-amylase, and then of pancreatic amylase in the small intestine as well as all the aforementioned mechanisms), while in the experiment 2 the healthy and pre-diabetic rats were subjected to 1-h small intestine perfusion with fluids containing glucose or sucrose. Considering the shape of blood glucose concentration curve following GTT and SuTT, as well as changes in glycaemia and mucosal disaccharidases activity observed within and after small intestine perfusion, the ETM (vs. ETD) extract more positively mitigated sugar-induced post-prandial glycaemic load. Contrary to expectations, the effect of extracts on pre-diabetic rats was negligible. The extract ETD, in turn, potently mitigated starch-induced postprandial glycaemic load during test StTT. The results clearly showed that the separate mechanisms (glucose transport across the intestine, intestinal mucosal disaccharidases inhibition activity, pancreatic α-amylase inhibitory activity) leading to decreased postprandial glycaemia upon dietary administration of strawberry ellagitannins largely depended on their chemical structure, i.e. degree of polymerization.