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Chronotypic Variation among Early and Middle Neolithic Societes in Poland Stanis³aw Iwaniszewski State Archaeological Museum, Warsaw, Poland National School of Anthropology and History, Mexico Proceedings of the Conference “Time and Astronomy in Past Cultures”, Toruñ, March 30 – April 1, 2005, A. So³tysiak (ed.), Warszawa – Toruñ 2006, pp. 101–115. Abstract: According to Douglass W. Bailey (1993) Neolithic and Early Bronze societies from south-eastern Europe were driven by two different chronotypes, the cyclical and linear ones. However, when the cognitive

. (1989). Die Hausentwicklung im Mittelneolithikum Zentraleuropas. Universitätsforschungen zur prähistorischen Archäologie 1, Bonn, Habelt. Harris, M. (1966). The Cultural Ecology of India`s Sacred Cattle. Current Anthropologie, Vol. 7, 51-59. Hodder, I. (1990). The Domestication of Europe: Structure and Contingency in Neolithic Societies. Oxford, Basil Blackwell. Hofmann, D. (2006). Different times, different places. Architectural changes from the Early to the Middle Neolithic in Lower Bavaria. Journal of Iberian Archaeology 8, 185-202. Hofmann D., Pechtl, J

fossés circulaires; fossé d’enceinte; analyses ar- chéozoologiques et archéobotaniques. Abstract: The state of research on Middle Neolithic settle- ments is extremely patchy. For many regions there are little available data which could give information on how settlements were structured or how the economy of their inhabitants was organised. There is even less information on Middle Neolithic settlements with circular enclosures. At the Northwestern Bavarian site of Ippesheim, initial findings on the above-mentioned aspects have been ob- tained through geomagnetic

Abstract

This paper investigates to what extent the significant material changes observable at the end of the Neolithic reflect transformations of the underlying social dynamics. Answering this question will help us to understand the formation of Bronze Age societies. The analysis concerns southern Scandinavia with a certain focus on Denmark. The assumption is that the creation of Bronze Age societies must be understood as a long formative process that partly originated in the culturally-heterogeneous Middle Neolithic. Four aspects seem to have been essential to this process: the rise of the warrior figure, the reintroduction of metal, increased agricultural production, and the establishment of one of the characteristic features of the Bronze Age, the chieftain hall. These aspects do not appear simultaneously but are introduced stepby- step starting out in the late Middle Neolithic and early Late Neolithic to fully develop around 2000 BC. Consequently, this paper argues that the final Late Neolithic (LN II, c. 1950-1700 BC) was de facto part of the Earliest Bronze Age.

radiocarbone; artefacts en bois; transformations; Schleswig-Holstein Abstract: With the beginning of the DFG Collabora- tive Research Centre 1266 ”Scales of Transformation  - Human-Environmental Interaction in Prehistoric and Archaic Societies”, the subproject ”Late Mesolithic and Neolithic Transformations on the Northern and Central European Plain” also focused on the question of the transition from Middle Neolithic Funnel Beaker to Young Neolithic Single Grave societies. Due to the lack of settle- ment findings, first archaeological investigations were realised in

Abstract

Remains of the houses in the Late Neolithic of Northern Greece are as a rule less well preserved than in some other regions of Greece such as Thessaly. The site of Stavroupoli-Thessaloniki is a settlement with a dense habitation pattern, but poorly preserved architecture. Several habitation phases have been distinguished, dating to the Middle and Late Neolithic. Radiocarbon dates place the earlier phase to 5890 B.C. or slightly later. As the domestic unit in Stavroupoli can barely be approached through their architecture, the ceramic wares and particularly the cooking vessels will be used as a proxy to identify households and clarify aspects of their organization. The size of domestic units is approached through capacity of cooking pots, assuming that sharing cooked food on everyday level is a vital element of these units. Also, variability in cooking techniques between houses and possible changes through time will be examined through both the shape and the size of cooking vessels. Finally, Stavroupoli’s cooking pots will be compared with cooking vessels from other contemporaneous sites in order to approach the issue of household on a regional level.

, D-50923 Köln. E-Mail: schamuhn@netcologne.de Tanja Zerl M. A., Labor für Archäobotanik, Institut für Ur- und Frühgeschichte, Universität zu Köln, Weyertal 125, D-50923 Köln. E-Mail: tzerl@uni-koeln.de A. Kreuz et al., The Late Neolithic Michelsberg culture – just ramparts and ditches?   73 context of archaeological, climatological and biological data. Compared with Bischheim and the Middle Neolithic the farmers of the Michelsberg culture had a reduced crop spectrum with emphasis on cereal growing. It is still under debate, from where the tetraploid wheat

Abstract

The eighth season of excavation at the Jiahu Site in the autumn of 2013 uncovered eight house foundations, 25 ash pits and 97 burials, along with hundreds of artifacts made of pottery, stone, bone and ivory. One of the most intriguing findings was the burial of two adult males underneath the living floor of a house foundation 2013F5 belonging to Phase I. They yielded rich grave goods that included bone flutes, engraved ivory plaque, a set of turtle shells, and other high-ranking artifacts. They are, to date, the first ever in-house burials found in Chinese archaeology. In addition, the other burials also yielded large amount of turquoise ornaments and exquisitely engraved ivory plaques. These findings are significant to the study of the prehistoric funeral practice and social differentiation during the early and middle Neolithic Age of China.

Abstract

The settlement of San Martino was found in 2008 on the Northern coast of Sicily (near the city of Spadafora — Messina). It is located on a hill slope about 4 km from the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea, near an ancient river which is no longer present today. The stratigraphy included two Neolithic levels: the oldest one belonged to the Stentinello culture (middle Neolithic — 6th-5th millennium BC cal) and the later one belonged to the Diana culture (Late Neolithic — 4th millennium BC cal). The San Martino lithic assemblage consists of a very significant amount of obsidian knapping products that have allowed us to examine the procurement, exploitation and circulation of this raw material, from the source on the island off the coast of Sicily, during the Neolithic period. Considering its strategic location and some analogies with other settlements nearby, the site of San Martino was probably part of the Lipari obsidian networks of exchange.

Abstract

Periods of intense human impact on the relief and lithology of the area of the Smólsk site were recorded during geoarchaeological research accompanying archaeological field work. The phases of occupation of the area are known in detail from the results of the large-scale archaeological research of the site. The slope deposits with buried soils were recorded at the site area and researched in detail with the use of sedimentological, geochemical and micromorphological analyses. Beside geochronological deterioration, the chronology of the artefacts found in layers played an important role in the strict recognition of the age of deposits. The lower part of the studied slope cover is constituted by deluvium and the upper part by tillage diamicton. The origin and the development of the slope deposits are correlated with the phases of an intense prehistoric human impact as defined by the archaeological research. Four main phases of acceleration of slope processes were documented at the site and date to the Early Neolithic, the Middle Neolithic, the Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age.