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References ADGER,W.N. VINCENT, K. (2005): Uncertainty in adaptive capacity. 337 (4): 399-410. BERKES F. - COLDING, J. - FOLKE, C. (eds.) (2002): Navigating Social-Ecological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK BOCK, W. J. (1980): The definition and recognition of biological adaptation. Integrative and Comparative Biology. 20 (1): 217-227. BROOKS, N. (2003): Vulnerability, Risk and Adaptation: A Conceptual Framework. Working Paper 38, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Eat Anglia

MUSCLE FIBER TYPES EXPRESSING DIFFERENT MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN ISOFORMS. THEIR FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES AND ADAPTIVE CAPACITY S. Schiaffino, L. Gorza, S. Ausoni CNR Unit for Muscle Biology and Physiopathology, Institute of General Pathology, 35100 Padova, Italy R. Bottinelli, C. Reggiani Institute of Human Physiology, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy L. Larson, L. Edstrom Departments of Clinical Neurophysiology and Neurology, Kaiolinska Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden K. Gundersen, T. L0mo Institute of Neurophysiology, University of


While extensively employed in the mainstream literature focused on earth system science and sustainable development, the concepts of resilience, vulnerability and adaptation are still difficult to operationalize given the different conceptual frameworks proposed in various scientific fields, such as ecology, disaster reduction and global change. Although multiple points of view are, to a certain degree, beneficial to an in-depth understanding of the dynamics of the coupled human-environmental systems, there is a need to correlate the theoretical frameworks of the two sustainability pillars, resilience and vulnerability, in a coherent and efficient manner.

. Mountain Research and Development, 2009, 29(4):308-319. [34] Patt A.G., Schroter D., de la Vega-Leinert A.C., Klein R.J.T., Vulnerability research and assessment to support adaptation and mitigation: Common themes from the diversity of approaches. In: Patt A.G., Schroter D., de la Vega-Leinert A.C., Klein R.J.T., (Eds.), 2008, Environmental Vulnerability Assessment. Earthscan, London. [35] Hinkel J., Indicators of vulnerability and adaptive capacity: towards a clarification of the science-policy interface, 2011, Global Environmental Change, 21(1): 198-208. [36] McCarthy

community resilience or the contributing concept of adaptive capacity”. This case study addresses these knowledge gaps, by using concepts from ecology to analyze how adaptive capacity may have changed in a community facing chronic environmental stress. The growing interest in resilience had led to conceptual pluralism ( 8 ), ( 9 ), ( 10 ) and efforts to clarify key concepts and definitions ( 11 ), ( 12 ), ( 13 ). The two most common definitions of resilience applied to social-ecological systems, integrated systems in which humans are part of nature ( 14 ), were developed

, economic, and social aspects of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity, and conducts vulnerability studies on time and space scales. Thus, we reveal the dynamic change rule of vulnerability in the Hegang coal mine area under the coupling of humans and the Earth, with an aim to provide guidance for ecological environment construction and rational utilization of land in Hegang, and finally achieve sustainable development. 2 Materials and methods 2.1 Study Site Hegang is located in the hilly region of the eastern foot of the Little Xing’an Mountains and the plains at

, Schrumpfung, Demographischer Wandel) betrachtet werden können. Die folgenden vier Thesen bestimmen dabei die Diskussion: Es gibt einen Bedarf für Anpassungsstrategien an den Klimawandel auf regionaler Ebene. Regionale Anpassungsstrategien tragen zur Erhöhung der „Adaptive Capacity“ auf regionaler und lokaler Ebene bei. Der Raumplanung kommt bei der Anpassung an den Klimawandel eine bedeutende Rolle zu. Zur Entwicklung regionaler Anpassungsstrategien ist der Steuerungsansatz der strategischen Planung besonders geeignet. 1 Bedarf regionaler Anpassungsstrategien Weltweit

adaptive capacity” of stakeholders ( 12 ), ( 13 ), ( 14 ). The adaptive capacity of communities includes its social capital, or the knowledge, experience, trust, and communication networks established among community members. Communities with more social capital should have residents who are better informed about the scientific and technical origins of environmental exposure issues ( 15 ), ( 16 ), ( 17 ). Thus, key characteristics of more resilient communities include higher levels of scientific understanding of hazards, more opportunities for stakeholders to “self

and Adaptation Assessment, Ebi K.L., Berry P., Campbell- Lendrum D., Carlos C., Guillemot J., World Health Organization and Pan American Health Organization, Geneva, 2012, globalchange/publications/Final_Climate_Change.pdf. [34] Berry P., Vulnerabilities, adaptation and adaptive capacity, In: J. Seguin (Ed.), Human health in a changing climate: A Canadian assessment of vulnerabilities and adaptive capacity, Health Canada, Ottawa, 2008. [35] Wall E., Marzall K., Adaptive capacity for climate change in Canadian rural communities, Local Environ


Evolutionary processes lead to the survival of individuals best adapted to local environment. This gives rise to allele polymorphism and genetic diversity of populations. Isoenzyme proteins, which are the product of gene expression, are an effective tool for tracking these changes. On the other hand, the reproductive potential of a given population can be assessed based on its ability to produce viable and efficiently germinating seeds. The present results combine molecular analyses of isoenzyme proteins with anatomical and morphological studies of Scots pine seeds (Pinus sylvestris L.). The study was conducted in 6 populations that are characteristic of this species occurrence range in the country. The results confirm the correlation between seed weight and embryo size. They also show a population from northeastern Poland had a higher effective number of alleles and seed with lower germinative energy and capacity. There was genetic homogeneity in all except for the population from Woziwoda, which was significantly different based on the Fst test. The genetic characteristics of Scots pine from Woziwoda may be associated with the lower levels of rainfall that occur there during the growing season. The results improve our knowledge of Scots pine variability and contribute to the discussion of the impact of local environment on genetic variability.