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hofft. Da aber dieses Studium gegebenenfalls* von Studenten gewählt wird, die sich sonst auf beide Fakultäten verteilt hätten, fragt sich, ob es im Endergebnis weniger arbeitslose Absolventen gibt als jetzt. . . Aber immerhin: Ihre Ausbildung wurde besser sein, und damit ihre Aussichten, früher oder später eine Stellung zu bekom- men, die ihrem Wissen und Können entspricht. RICHARD I. KITTREDGE Universtä de Montreal The Development of Automated Translation Systems in Canada 1. A historical sketch of Canadian research and development in auto- mated translation Canada

Abstract

To address archaeology’s most pressing substantive challenges, researchers must discover, access, and extract information contained in the reports and articles that codify so much of archaeology’s knowledge. These efforts will require application of existing and emerging natural language processing technologies to extensive digital corpora. Automated classification can enable development of metadata needed for the discovery of relevant documents. Although it is even more technically challenging, automated extraction of and reasoning with information from texts can provide urgently needed access to contextualized information within documents. Effective automated translation is needed for scholars to benefit from research published in other languages.

interactive, that support automated linking, or automated translation. 2.1.1 Communicative: Text reception: Interactive text reception, Category RI-1 This type of assistance pertains to situations where the user has to find the correct answer, for example, the meaning or appropriate term by decoding a complex system or complex grammatical structure. For Bantu languages such as Sepedi with a very complex copulative system, the user may, for example, need assistance in finding the meaning of a specific copulative construction that (s)he is confronted with in oral

subdivided into tools that are interac- tive, that support automated linking, or automated translation. 2.1.1 Communicative: Text reception: Interactive text reception, Category RI-1 This type of assistance pertains to situations where the user has to find the correct answer, for example, the meaning or appropriate term by decoding a complex sys- tem or complex grammatical structure. For Bantu languages such as Sepedi with a very complex copulative system, the user may, for example, need assistance in find- ing the meaning of a specific copulative construction that (s

healthcare sector. This chapter discusses the advancements in natural lan- guage processing, the chief focus being the spoken aspect of the language during communication. The chapter discusses the stringing together of three major techni- ques: automatic speech recognition, automated translation by machine and conver- sion of text into spoken utterance, that is, text to speech for seamless communication in healthcare services. Besides this, the technological developments and implementa- tion of the challenges at each step is identified and briefly discussed. The perfor

Abstract

Automated translation (machine translation, MT) is systematically gaining popularity among professional translators, who claim that editing MT output requires less time and effort than translating from scratch. MT technology is also offered in leading translator’s workstations, e.g., SDL Trados Studio, memoQ, Déjà Vu and Wordfast. Therefore, the dilemma arises: should MT be introduced into formal translation training? In order to answer this question, first, it is necessary to understand how trainee translators actually use MT.

This study is an attempt to obtain this knowledge. The methodology applied in this investigation is text analysis. During the experiment sessions the students were asked to translate a legal text using MT tools, which in practice meant the post-editing of the MT raw output. The post-edited versions of the text underwent analysis in order to answer the following research questions:

- What are the most typical errors contained in both French and English MT output?

- How critical are the students towards the text generated by MT?

- How perceptive are the students during the post-editing task?

- Are they able to detect and correct errors using their knowledge and skills?

The results of this study suggest that the post-editing of the MT raw output is as demanding for translation students as traditional translation, however, it requires a different set of skills, such as critical thinking and perceptiveness. Therefore, a special kind of training related to the effective use of MT technology should be implemented during translation classes.

., Hamilton B., The visual factory – Building participation through shared information, Productivity press, Portland, Oregon, 1991 [5] Peterson M., Standardization of process sheet information to support automated translation of assembly instructions and product-process coupling, Master thesis, Clemson University, South Carolina, USA, 2012 [6] Mourgues C., Fisher M., Kunz J., Method to produce field instructions from product and process model for cast-in-place concrete operations, CIFE working paper, Stanford University, Stanford, 2008 [7] Olofsson O., How to follow

A 20650F ft 3 1981 CVI. Jahrgang «J 0023-9909 ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR FREMDE SPRACHEN IN WISSENSCHAFT UND PRAXIS zugleich Fachblatt des Bundesverbandes der Dolmetscher und Übersetzer e.V. (BDÜ) Inhalt S. O. POULSEN: Sprachmittlerausbildung in Dänemark 97 R. I. KTTTREDGE: The Development of Automated Translation Systems in Canada 100 Englisch W. NITSCHKE: Einige charakteristische Merkmale des schottischen Englisch . 104 J. ARTKÄMPER: -Glossar zur Güteprüfung ( -D) . . . 106. R. LIEB: Thieves' Argot ( -D) 108 Französisch B. FANDRICH: Terminologie und Phra- seologie der

concentrate its financial and other efforts on language technology, mainly on programs for automated translation, which, in the current state, often tend to neglect all but the three "major languages" of the Union. Only through an intensive use of language technology, the Taalunie feels, will the Union be able to continue its active multilingualism and at the same time see to it that the cost remains within reasonable limits. The danger that lesser used languages will soon considerably lag behind on the language technological level is very real indeed. The automated

. Autobahnen, Glossar (F-D) 3/80, S. 115. Automated Translation, The Development of ~ Systems in Canada3/81, S. 100. B Behinderte, Glossar (D-F/F-D) 2/81, S. 69. Belastung bei Hitzearbeit, Glossar (D-F,/F- D) 3/80, S. 117. Bibliographische Hinweise 1/80, S. 47, 3/81, S. 138,3/81, S. 143. Briefe an die Herausgeber 1/80, S. 41, 2/80, S. 87,3/80, S. 138,4/80, S. 181,1/81, S. 44, 2/81, S. 90,3/81, S. 133,4/81, S. 186. Buchführung, Glossar (E-D) 1/81, S. 20. Chinesische Namen, Die Romanisiening chi- nesischer Namen 2/80, S. 96. Computer Aids in Translation 1/80, S. 14. Computer