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Panel on Climate Change, In C.B. Field, V.R. Barros, D.J. Dokken, K.J. Mach, M.D. Mastrandrea, T.E. Bilir, et al. (Eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1132 pp. [4] Health Canada, Heat Alert and Response Systems to Protect Health: Best Practices Guidebook, Health Canada, Ottawa, 2012. [5] Luber G., McGeehin M., Climate change and extreme heat events, Am. J. Prev. Med., 2008, 35 (5), 429–435. [6] Gamble J.L., Hurley B.J., Schultz P.A., Jaglom W.S., Krishhan N., Harris M., Climate Change and Older Americans: State of the

Background Climate change is projected to have serious and long-term consequences for public health. One of the more important and measurable impacts is health outcomes associated with extreme heat events, particularly in moderate climates. We sought to investigate the regional historical heat-health outcomes, develop a unique model predicting heat-health impacts from climate change, and validate the model performance. This analysis builds upon previous work that found significant increases in non-traumatic mortality associated with heat days compared to non

Introduction Health-related impacts associated with extreme-heat events are of growing concern, given the predicted increase in both frequency and duration of these events as a result of climate change (1). Numerous studies indicated that higher temperatures, or other indices of the physiologic effect of heat and humidity, are associated with increased mortality (2–8). Research focused on hospitalization and emergency room visits also found an increased risk associated with increasing temperatures (9–13). Studies conducted in the US have shown an increased risk

, Warszawa. KRUCZKO Z., 1962, Dni parne w Lublinie. Annales UMCS sec. B, 17, 12: 297-306. LINDNER K., 2011, Assessment of sensible climate in Warsaw using UTCI. Prace i Studia Geograficzne 47: 285-291. LUBER G., MCGEEHIN M., 2008, Climate change and extreme heat events. The American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 35, 5: 429-435. McMICHAEL A.J., WOODRUFF R.E., HALES S., 2006, Climate change and human health: Present and future risks. Lancet 367, 9513: 859-869. MRUGAŁA SZ., 1992, Wybrane aspekty zmienności ochładzania katatermometrycznego w Lublinie. Folia Societatis

exposures and health outcomes in older adults living in public housing during an extreme heat event in Cambridge, MA. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019;16:pii: E2373. 10.3390/ijerph16132373 Williams AA Spengler JD Catalano P Allen JG Cedeno-Laurent JG Building vulnerability in a changing climate: indoor temperature exposures and health outcomes in older adults living in public housing during an extreme heat event in Cambridge, MA Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 16 pii: E2373 19. Gough H, Faulknall-Mills S, King MF, Luo Z. Assessment of overheating risk in

change and adaptation Nat Clim Change 2014 4 287 17. Ainsworth EA, Ort DR. How do we improve crop production in a warming world? Plant Physiol 2010;154:526–30. 10.1104/pp.110.161349 Ainsworth EA Ort DR How do we improve crop production in a warming world? Plant Physiol 2010 154 526 30 18. Teskey R, Wertin T, Bauweraerts I, Ameye M, McGuire MA, Steppe K. Responses of tree species to heat waves and extreme heat events. Plant Cell Environ 2015;38:1699–712. 10.1111/pce.12417 25065257 Teskey R Wertin T Bauweraerts I Ameye M McGuire MA Steppe K Responses of tree species to

. 2008. “Climate Change and Extreme Heat Events.” American Journal of Preventative Medicine 35: 429–435. 10.1016/j.amepre.2008.08.021 Luber G. McGeehin M. 2008 Climate Change and Extreme Heat Events American Journal of Preventative Medicine 35 429 435 Makin, J. 2011. “Implications of Climate Change for Skin Cancer Prevention in Australia.” Health Promotion Journal of Australia 22: S39–S41. 10.1071/HE11439 Makin J. 2011 Implications of Climate Change for Skin Cancer Prevention in Australia Health Promotion Journal of Australia 22 S39 S41 McDaniels, T., S. Chang, D

also arise because of pre-existing diseases that are being treated by drugs that the elderly they are less able to detoxify (and thus have greater sensitivity to a given dose) and that also serve to magnify the effects of environmental exposures. For example, the well known sensitivity of the elderly to heat waves has been well documented. Given the already—pre- existing vulnerability to extreme heat events among the elderly, the added risk to the elderly caused by sensitivity to drugs may pose a particular problem for certain portions of the elderly population

temperatures for India throughout the 21st century, including increasing extreme heat events ( 10 ). Heat wave conditions are known to amplify the effect of temperature on mortality ( 11 ) and several other effect modifiers have been identified such as the timing, duration and intensity of the heat wave and its geographical variation ( 12 ), ( 13 ). The InternationalDisaster Database (EM-DAT) for India shows that 10,389 deaths were caused by extreme temperatures between January 1990 and March 2014 ( 14 ). The definition and the criteria for categorizing heat waves is given

of today’s populated areas [2]. Moreover, there is a predicted likelihood of increase in the frequency of extreme heat events, or heat waves [4], which can culminate in increased risk of heat-related illnesses (HRIs) and deaths [5]. Deaths were found to toll up to 688 persons per year (average annual death per year over a period of 5 years, 3442 deaths in total) in the US due to HRIs [6]. About 423 heat-related deaths were observed among crop workers in the US from 1992 to 2006 [7, 8]. In France, a more than 50 years record was broken during the 2003 European heat