be increased by coating the nanoparticles with polymers, which can prevent particle agglomeration by steric hindrance. The differences in type of stabilizers could lead to different properties of AgNPs including the release or distribution of silver ions related to perhaps the protein activity [ 11 , 12 ]. Thus, to study of how AgNPs affect the protein function, the capping agent of synthesized AgNPs should be mentioned. Poly (4-styrenesulfonicacid-co-maleic acid) or PSSMA is a polyelectrolyte copolymer of styrenesulfonic acid and maleic acid, which is widely
Immobilization of ZnO nanoparticles on cotton fabrics using poly 4-styrenesulfonic acid (PSS) was studied. The cotton fabrics were firstly cationized using 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethylammonium chloride (CHTAC) solution. The surfaces of cationized cotton were coated using a layer-by-layer technique by stepwise dipping the cationized cotton into a solution of anionic PSS polyelectrolyte and Zn(NO3)2 · 6H2O solution. The coating procedure was repeated 2, 4, and 6 times to obtain the PSS/Zn2+ multilayers coated on the cotton fabrics. The treated cotton fabrics were hydrothermally treated in NH4OH solution at 90 oC for 24 h, resulting in immobilization of ZnO nanocrystals on the cotton fabrics. The SEM, XRF, and XPS data revealed the accomplishment of ZnO immobilization on the surfaces of the treated cotton fabrics. The higher the number of PSS/Zn2+ coating layers on the fabrics, the more hydrothermally grown ZnO nanoparticles could be obtained, resulting in a higher UV protection factor when testing by the AATCC 183–2004 standard test method. All cotton fabrics with the ZnO immobilized on the surfaces were classified according to the AS/NZS 4339:1997 standard in the range of “VERY GOOD” UV protection category. The ZnO-immobilized cotton fabrics with the six PSS/Zn2+ coating layers could inhibit the growth of Staphylococcusaureus when testing by the AATCC 147–2004 standard test method.
DBSA doped polypyrrole was prepared by In-situ chemical oxidative polymerization method. The reaction temperature was 0 to 20 °C. Different weight percentages of PSS (40 wt.%, 60 wt.% and 80 wt.%) were mechanically blended with a pestle in an agate mortar for 25 minutes by solid state mixing. The investigation of the blend focused on the optical, structural and morphological properties. SEM micrographs indicated that PSS was homogeneously distributed within DBSA doped PPy. FT-IR study confirmed the doped and blended dopants in the composite structure. UV-study revealed the π → π* transition in benzenoid rings of DBSA and presence of PSS. The semi-crystalline nature of the composites improved with increasing the weight percentage of PSS.
Optics and Electronics, Elsevier BV, Amsterdam, 2010
 Boonpoo-nga, R., Sriring, M., Nijpanich, S., Wongbuth, L., Martwiset, S., Semi-interpenetrating Polymer Networks of Poly(4-styrenesulfonicacid) and Poly(acrylic acid) for Fuel Cell Applications, KKU Res. J., 2011, 16, 757-763.
 Gomes, E.C., Oliveira, M.A.S., Chemical Polymerization of Aniline in Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) and Formic Acid (HCOOH) Media. Differences Between the Two Synthesized Polyanilines, Am. J. Polym. Sci., 2012, 2, 5-13.
 Shakoor, A., Rizvi T.Z., Nawaz, A., Raman spectroscopy and AC
This study presents a simple, sensitive, rapid, and low-cost amperometric method for direct and quantitative determination of glyphosate and glufosinate herbicides. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of poly(2,5-dimethoxyaniline)-poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PDMA-PSS) nanoparticles was achieved by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The nanobiosensor was constructed by immobilizing the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) electrostatically onto the surface of a rotating gold disk electrode modified with PDMA-PSS nanoparticles. The biosensing principle was based on determination of the sensor response to glyphosate and glufosinate by amperometric methods. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used to measure activity of the enzyme before injection of the herbicides into the electrolyte solution. The enzyme electrode was stable for a long period of time and was used for over 60 measurements. Glyphosate and glufosinate analyses were realized on spiked corn samples within a concentration range of 2.0-78.0 μg L-1, corroborating that the nanobiosensor is sensitive enough to detect herbicides in these matrices. Based on a 20-μL sample injection volume, the detection limits were 0.1 μg L-1 (10-10 M) for both glyphosate and glufosinate without sample clean-up or preconcentration.
Polym. J. , 22 , 219 – 225 ( 2013 ) 10.1007/s13726-012-0119-x Jayamurugan P. , Ponnuswamy V. , Ashokan S. , Jayaprakash R. N. , Ashok N. , Guna K. and Mariappan R. , “ DBSA Doped Polypyrrole Blended with Poly(4-styrenesulfonicacid) by Mechanical Mixing ”, Materials Science-Poland , 32 , 648 – 651 ( 2014 ) 10.2478/s13536-014-0234-9 Jayamurugan P. , Ponnuswamy V. , Ashokan S. , Jayaprakash R. N. , Ashok N. , Guna K. and Mariappan R. , “ DBSA Doped Polypyrrole Blended with Poly(4-styrenesulfonicacid) by Mechanical Mixing ”, Materials Science
, however, limited its practical applications in many areas. Polyacids are also employed for PPy to increase its applicability. Among polyacids, Poly(4-styrenesulfonicacid) solution (PSS) is widely used to improve the thermal stability  and conductivity  of conducting polymers. The excess sulfonic acid groups can improve dispersibility and the resultant PPy is easily processable in aqueous solution. Compared to small-molecule acids, polymeric acid dopants are immobile and cannot be easily displaced from the backbone. Recently, there have been a few reports on the
soluble nickel(0) and cobalt(0) nanoclusters stabilized by poly(4-styrenesulfonicacid-co-maleic acid): highly active, durable and cost effective catalysts in hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of ammonia borane. Int. J. Hydrogen Energ. 36 , 1424 (2011). 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2010.10.070 Metin Ö. Özkar S. Water soluble nickel(0) and cobalt(0) nanoclusters stabilized by poly(4-styrenesulfonicacid-co-maleic acid): highly active, durable and cost effective catalysts in hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of ammonia borane Int. J. Hydrogen Energ. 36 1424 2011 23
handsheets (Lofton et al. 2005); CMC and
cationic starch on pulp fibres (Pettersson et al. 2006);
PAH, PAA, and polyethylene oxide (PEO)/PAA on
cellulose fibres (Ryu et al. 2011); PDADMAC, PSS,
polyacrylamide (PAAm) and poly(4-styrenesulfonicacid-
co-maleic acid) sodium salt on silicon wafers (Gong et al.
2008); PDADMAC, xyloglucan and CMC on cellulose
nanofibrils (NFC) (Ahola et al. 2008); PEI on
microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) (Aulin et al. 2008); PEI,
PAH, and polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) on polished silicon
wafers (Jean et al. 2008); PAH and PAA on silicon