DOI 10.1515/green-2012-0009 Green 2012; 2(4): 149–157
High Efficiency Thin-Film Solar Cells
Abstract: Production of photovoltaics is growing world-
wide on a gigawatt scale. Among the thinfilm technolo-
gies, Cu(In,Ga)S,Se2 (CIS or CIGS) based solar cells have
been the focus of more and more attention. This paper
aims to analyze the success of CIGS based solar cells and
the potential of this technology for future photovoltaics
large-scale production. Specific material properties make
CIS unique and allow the preparation of the
electron mobility, they hold the promise of having the lowest losses at these frequencies. Out of the multitude of possibilities, gold, silver, and aluminum are the ones that are mainly used. Although the alkali metals are theoretically better due to their even higher electron mobility and, thus, lower losses, their notorious chemical and mechanical instability makes them impractical to work with. There have been only very few attempts where plasmons in these metals were characterized . 3.1 Gold thinfilms Gold is the plasmonic material mostly used nowadays. Its
In experimental thin film physics, there is a demand to characterize a growing thin film or the thin film resulting from an experiment. While methods for discontinuous, island-like thin films have been developed, there is a lack of results directly applicable to semicontinuous thin film description. In this contribution, a unique combination of image processing methods is collected and further developed, which results in a novel set of semicontinuous thin film descriptors. In particular, the shape of the thin film contours and the thin film image intensity profiles are analyzed in a multiscale manner. The descriptiveness of the proposed features is demonstrated on a few thin film photographs from real experiments. This work establishes a basis for further measurement, description, simulation or other processing in the physics of semicontinuous thin films, using any direct imaging modality.
products ( Isogai et al. 2011 ; Klemm et al. 2012 ; Khalil et al. 2012 ). TOCN is also promising in terms of CS adsorption. Thinfilms with a thickness below 100 nm are good models for cellulosic substrates (Ristić et al. 2014), which have a homogeneous surface morphology. One of the powerful tools for studying polymer adsorption on thinfilms is the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), which is a kind of a nanogram-sensitive balance. Until now, cellulose thinfilms were used mainly as model substrates for regenerated cellulose (RC). The interaction of
of H-doped ZnO”, Optical and Quantum Electronics , vol. 48 no. 5 (2016),.  P. Kelly and R. Arnell, “Magnetron sputtering: a review of recent developments and applications”, Vacuum , vol. 56 no. 3 (2000), 159-172.  Z. Remes, J. Stuchlik, A. Purkrt, Y.-Y. Chang, J. Jirasek, P. Stenclova, V. Prajzler and P. Nekvindova, “ZnO ThinFilms Prepared by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering”, NANOCON 2016 - 8th International Conference on Nanomaterials - Research and Application , Conference Proceedings, 8 vol. Hotel Voronez I, Brno, Czech Republic, TANGER Ltd.(2016).  Y
The structuring features of As38S18Se44 chalcogenide (ChG) inorganic glasses were studied using electron beam (EB) lithography. After the EB exposure, ChG thin films are etched in a high-selectivity alkaline amine, with the dissolution rate being linearly proportional to the electron dose. The Gaussian EB intensity profile is well replicated in the shape of individual lines, which allows high-resolution smoothlyshaped nanostructures to be obtained. The height of developed patterns can be controlled through changing the applied electron dose. These features make the proposed technique widely applicable in the fields of photonics and optics. The results obtained would help to better understand the processes occurring in ChG thin films at recording the diffractive gratings, and thus achieve a better profile and surface roughness control.