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. 1962. A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Foulkes H.D. 1915. Angass Manual. Grammar, Vocabulary. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner and Co. GHWb = Hannig Rainer. 1995. Grosses Handwörterbuch Ägyptisch-Deutsch (2800-950 v. Chr.). Mainz: Verlag Philipp von Zabern. Heine Bernd. 1978. "The Sam Languages. A History of Rendille, Boni and Somali." Afroasiatic Linguistics 6(2), 23-115. Carleton T. 1968. "Some Afroasiatic Etymologies." Anthropological Linguistics 10(3), 19-29. Hoffmann Carl. 1975. Towards a Comparative Phonology of

. Mittleres Reich und Zweite Zwischenzeit. I-II. Hannig-Lexica 5. Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von Zabern. Biberstein Kazimirski A. de. 1860. Dictionnaire arabe-français . Paris: Maisonneuve & Co. Editeurs. BIFAO = Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale (Le Caire). Bitima Tamene. 2000. A Dictionary of Oromo Technical Terms. Oromo-English . Köln: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag. Bomhard Allan R. 1986. "Common Indo-European/Afroasiatic Roots. Supplement 1." General Linguistics 26, 225-257. Bynon J., Bynon Th. (eds.). 1975. Hamito-Semitica . The Hague: Mouton

Paul. 1978. "Les langues tchadiques." In: Barreteau 1978: 291-330. Biberstein Kazimirski A. De. 1860. Dictionnaire arabe-français. Paris: Maisonneuve & Co. Editeurs. Blachère Régis, Chouémi Moustafa, Denizeau Claude, Pellat Charles. 1967-1976. Dictionnaire arabe-françaisanglais (Langue classique et moderne). T. I-III. Paris: Maisonneuve et Larose. Blažek Václav. 1992. "The New Dravidian-Afroasiatic Parallels. Preliminary Report." In: Shevoroshkin 1992: 150-165. Blažek Václav: 1994. "Review of Jungraithmayr H.: Lexique mokilko." Journal of African Languages and

AFROASIATIC AN OVERVIEW Before a Brugmann or a Brockelmann can provide the scholarly world with a com- pendium which remains standard long after it is outdated, there must be several generations of scholars gathering and organizing data. This preparatory work largely remains to be done in the field of Afroasiatic.1 The basic data — reliable descriptions, including dictionaries — are yet lacking for most languages. The work that has been done is thus forced to rely on very uneven evidence over broad areas (Tucker 1967: 655). The difficulties of comparison

1. A F R O A S I A T I C : A N O V E R V I E W CARLETON Τ. HODGE Before a Brugmann or a Brockelmann can provide the cholarly world with a com- pendium which remains standard long after it is outdated, there must be several generations of scholars gathering and organizing data. This preparatory work largely remains to be done in the field of Afroasiatic.1 The basic data — reliable descriptions, including dictionaries — are yet lacking for most languages. The work that has been done is thus forced to rely on very uneven evidence over broad areas (Tucker 1967

69 The Origins of African Languages and the Development of Agriculture in Africa Before considering the rise and spread of Afroasiatic, I should like to look at linguistic and agricultural developments in Africa as a whole. As mentioned in the last chapter, Joseph Greenberg usually used the method of mass lexical comparison. He compared word lists for basic things, qualities and pro cesses, generally correspond- ing to the Swadash list, from hundreds of languages and dialects. This technique has roused suspicion and hostility from more con- ventional

Dialectal variation in Proto-Afroasiatic Robert Hetzron 1. Introduction Linguists want to represent related languages as having branched off from a hypothetical, only partially reconstructible, proto-lan- guage. The splintering may have taken place through geographic separation, such as migration, impracticable roads, and high moun- tains. It may have been the result of political and/or cultural division. When several influential political, economical, and cultural centers arise and the speakers develop allegiance to one such center, it might impose its

2.11. The Proto-Afroasiatic Vowel System 105 kind'; Tigre r hama 'to have pity on' (Arabic loan). C. Akkadian *ba?lu > *be^lu > *be">lu > belu Owner, lord': Hebrew bcfal 'lord, owner'; Arabic ba?l 'husband, master, owner'; Soqotri ba?l 'master, lord'; Ugaritic b^l Owner of the house'; Geez / Ethiopic bafal Owner, master'; Tigrinya bafal, ba^al 'master'. A similar phenomenon occurs in Arabic, where, according to the native grammarians, ? is weakened and even lost with compensatory vowel lengthening when the loss takes place between a preceding short vowel and a

2.70. The Proto-Afroasiatic Consonant System 91 2.10. The Proto-Afroasiatic Consonant System Unlike the comparative-historical study of the Indo-European Language Family, which has a long history, the comparative-historical study of the Afroasiatic Language Family is still not far advanced. Even though the Semitic and Egyptian branches have been scientifically investigated rather thoroughly, several of the other branches are only now being examined, and there remain many modern Afroasiatic languages that are scarcely even known. Moreover, while a few of the