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Effects of Salicylic Acid on Alternative Pathway Respiration and Alternative Oxidase Expression in Tobacco Calli Tao Leia, Ying-Cai Yana, De-Hui Xia, Hong Fengc, Xin Suna, Fan Zhanga, Wei-Lin Xub, Hou-Guo Lianga, and Hong-Hui Lina,* a Key Laboratory of Bio-resources and Eco-environment (Ministry of Education), College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, Sichuan, P. R. China. Fax: 86-0 28-85 41 25 71. E-mail: b State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan, P

Cd contamination on plants examined the infl u- ence on the antioxidant capacity (Lin et al., 2007). Whereas less information is available on respira- tion and photosynthesis, a variety of biotic and abiotic stress conditions have been shown to nega- tively impact the cytochrome pathway and induce alternative oxidase (AOX) (Mizuno et al., 2008). Previous studies also showed that heavy-metal ions would reduce the effi ciency of photosynthe- sis by inhibiting the key enzymes (ribulose-1,5- bisphosphate carboxylase, phosphoenol-pyruvate carboxylase) of the

0939 – 5075/2010/0700 – 0463 $ 06.00 © 2010 Verlag der Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, Tübingen · · D Introduction The mitochondria in higher plants have two respiratory pathways, a cyanide-sensitive cyto- chrome pathway (CP) and a cyanide-insensi- tive alternative pathway (AP). AP respiration is connected with the respiratory chain by an additional terminal oxidase-alternative oxidase (AOX). AOX is part of the branched respiratory electron transport chain. AOX accepts electrons from the ubiquinone pool and reduces oxygen to

about res- piratory responses to drought stress is limited and this is considered to be an important issue that needs to be addressed in the near future (Flexas et al., 2005). Plant mitochondria are different from animal mitochondria in that they have an alternative oxidase (AOX). It is well known that AOX cata- lyzes the cyanide (CN)-resistant respiration (al- ternative respiratory pathway or AOX pathway), which branches from the main respiratory chain at the level of ubiquinone and thus bypasses two of three sites of energy conservation supporting oxidative

(1999); received May 5/May 19, 1999 Magnaporthe grisea, Pyricularia oryzae, Appressorium Formation, Antifungal Compounds, Alternative Oxidase, Respiratory Inhibitors Appressorium formation in germinating conidia of Magnaporthe grisea was induced on a hydrophilic (noninductive) surface by antifungal compounds. Respiratory inhibitors or un­ coupling agents such as strobilurins, antimycin A, myxothiazol, rotenone, pterulone A, and oligomycin A were particularly effective whereas sodium cyanide had no effect. Cyclosporin A was effective only at high concentrations

[1] Bartoli C.G., Gomez F., Gergoff G., Guiamét J.J. & Puntarulo S. 2005. Up-regulation of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway enhances photosynthetic electron transport under drought conditions. J. Exp. Bot. 56: 1269–1276. [2] Bingham I.J. & Farrar J.F. 1989. Activity and capacity of respiration pathways in barley roots deprived of inorganic nutrients. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 27: 847–854. [3] Brennan T. & Frenkel C. 1977. Involvement of hydrogen peroxide in the regulation of senescence in pear. Plant Physiol. 59

; Love et al., 2008; and references cited therein). The current understanding of how plants effec- tively control mtROS formation is focused on the plant-specifi c cyanide-resistant alternative path- way. It is well known that cyanide-resistant respi- ration is catalyzed by alternative oxidase (AOX), which is located in the mitochondrial inner mem- brane and transfers electrons directly from the ubiquinone pool to oxygen without energy con- servation (Dutilleul et al., 2003; Millenaar and Cell Death of Rice Roots under Salt Stress May Be Mediated by Cyanide

reduction in the test concentrations to 0, 0.01, 0.04, 0.123, 0.37, 1.1, 3.3 and 10 mg/L, plus/minus the inclusion of the alternative oxidase inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) at a concentration of 30 mg/L. Differences in sensitivity between the three sites for both pyraclostrobin ± SHAM were determined by ANOVA using Genstat 18 th Edition. Molecular detection of resistance Following the QoI sensitivity, screening DNA from all isolates from the 2016 collection failing to grow in the presence of pyraclostrobin and an additional 80 isolates representative of the

low stomatal conductance and chloroplast CO2 concen- tration. New Phytol. 172, 73 – 82. Heyno E., Gross C. M., Laureau C., Culcasi M., Pietri S., and Krieger-Liszkay A. (2009), Plastid alternative oxidase (PTOX) promotes oxidative stress when overexpressed in tobacco. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 31174 – 31180. Ibáñez H., Ballester A., Muñoz R., and Quiles M. J. (2010), Chlororespiration and tolerance to drought, heat and high illumination. J. Plant Physiol. 167, 732 – 738. Joët T., Genty B., Josse E.-M., Kuntz M., Cournac L., and Peltier G. (2002), Involvement of a plastid

- nary biochemical studies suggested the existence of a unique respiratory supercomplex, SoxM. Here we show (i) that all respective genes are translated into polypeptides, and (ii) that the supercomplex can be separated from the alternative oxidase SoxABCD and in that way characterized in a catalytically competent form for the first time. It acts as a quinol oxidase and contains a total of seven metal redox centers. One of it – the blue copper protein sulfocyanin – functionally links two subcomplexes. One is a bb3-type terminal oxidase moiety containing CuA and CuB