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Archaeology and Historical Interpretation since 1700
A History of Classical Archaeology in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
The Archaeological Background of the Hebrew-Christian Religion
The Archaeological Background of the Hebrew-Christian Religion

épanoui et son sommeil sous la forme d’un lotus fermé. Il était très utile de publier ces actes d’un congrès qui a réuni autant de communications apportant autant d’idées et de précisions nouvelles, notamment en termi- nologie scientifique.  DOI 10.1515/olzg-2015-0025 Avari, Burjor: India: The Ancient Past. A history of the Indian sub-continent from c. 7000 BC to AD 1200. Lon- don, New York: Routledge 2007. XVIII, 284 S. m. Abb. Kart. £ 16.99. ISBN 978-0-415-35616-9. Being presented with yet another new history of early and classical India, the reader is bound to ask

ancient past. But what kinds of narratives could pre- and early history provide? The litera- ture on archaeology in Germany has stressed the rise of nationalist, even chauvinistic interpretations during the first three decades of the twenti- eth century, focusing especially on Gustaf Kossinna’s ethnic interpreta- tions and his emphasis on the study of prehistory as a patriotic duty. This perspective resonated in nationalist circles, and it gained Kossinna many chapter seven Professionalization and Nationalism in Domestic Archaeology 228 chapter seven adherents

part i The Discovery of Germany’s Ancient Pasts In 1754, an article in a Hannover gazette discussed how one might seek out antiquities “most successfully” and describe them “most usefully.”1 The author did not suggest searching texts by Greek and Roman authors. Instead, he advised readers to pay more attention to their surroundings and especially to rural villages as places where “the ancient” (das Alte) had maintained itself the longest. Local actors should investigate the physical remains left by earlier peoples and study legends passed down as oral

part ii The New Empire and the Ancient Past By the end of the nineteenth century, Germany had become a very an-cient place. The state itself emerged from a recent process of unifica- tion in 1871. Yet almost immediately the new German Empire was con- nected to the distant past in a variety of ways. Theaters in Munich and Berlin revived Heinrich von Kleist’s drama about Hermann (Arminius), the Cheruscan chief who had defeated the Roman legions in the Teuto- burg Forest in 9 CE. Die Hermannsschlacht (Hermann’s battle), written in 1808, captured the national

The Ancient Past and Contested Present in East-Central Europe

Iddin-Dagan and his Family 65 Iddin-Dagan and his Family by Piotr Michalowski – Ann Arbor The fragmentary nature of cuneiform documentation provides a gen- erous canvas for historical speculation; indeed, without such speculation our reconstruction of the ancient past would be dry, disjointed, and chaotically discontinuous. But speculation carries risks, and new in- formation more often than not wreaks havoc on even the most carefully woven historical narratives. In a recent paper I suggested that the royal houses of Mari and Ur were strongly linked during the