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. Key words: Quercetin-3’-O-β-D-glucoside, Antimelanogenesis, Antioxidant 210 E. T. Arung et al. · Quercetin-3’-O-β-D-glucoside Based on our preliminary screening data (not shown), the methanol extract of dried skin of red onion (Allium cepa) from Indonesia showed po- tent melanin biosynthesis inhibitory activity on B16 melanoma cells. We therefore focused on the active compound from dried red onion-skin. Material and Methods Chemicals NaOH and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were purchased from Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd. (Osaka, Japan

Abstract

In previous studies, the Artocarpus incisus extract containing 45% w/w artocarpin showed activities of antioxidation, antimelanogenesis and restoration of wrinkled-skin fibroblasts. Here, extract containing 90% w/w artocarpin was tested for its antioxidant activity and in ultraviolet (UV) A-irradiated fibroblasts, its ability to restore type I collagen and inhibit matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) elevation. This extract was a less effective antioxidant of EC50 of 116.0 ± 5.1 μg/mL than L-ascorbic acid (9.7 ± 0.01 μg/mL). The extract (0.625–50 μg/mL) showed no cytotoxicity toward primary human skin fibroblasts. MMP-1 was markedly elevated at 72 h after UVA irradiation compared to non-irradiation cells (p < 0.01). This UVA-induced elevation was inhibited by 50 μg/mL extract or 50 ng/mL all-trans retinoic acid. In an aged and sun-exposed skin tissue culture model, the increase of epidermal thickness in the 250 μg/mL artocarpin-enriched extract or 75 μg/mL all-trans retinoic acid-treated group when compared to the non-treated group was markedly observed since day 1 of treatment. Moreover, the extract or all-trans retinoic acid-treated groups exhibited higher density of immunofluorescence staining of type I collagen than non-treated group. This coincides with significantly higher (p < 0.05) collagen content, as indicated by measuring hydroxyproline. Our results firstly revealed that the artocarpin-enriched extract reversed the activities of UVA-irradiated fibroblasts and improved the type I collagen deposition in aged/photoaged skin.

using response surface methodology: Correlation between anti-melanogenesis, antioxidant activity, and phenolic content. Molecules, 20 (11), 19764-19774. DOI: 10.3390/molecules201119656 Kroyer, G., & Hegedus, N. (2001). Evaluation of bioactive properties of pollen extracts as functional dietary food supplement. Innovative Food Science Emerging Technology, 2 , 171-174. DOI: 10.1016/S1466-8564(01)00039-X Lee, S.K., Mbwambo, Z.H., Chung, H.S., Luyengi, L., Games, E.J.C., Mehta, R.G. (1998). Evaluation of the antioxidant potential of natural products. Combinatorial

presented in Table 2 . Of these compounds, six compounds showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Notably, procyanidin B7 ( 18 ) exhibited the most potent inhibition of monophenolase and diphenolase activity, with IC 50 (μM) values of 31.0 μM and 61.8 μM, respectively. Recently proanthocyanidins from several types of plants have been defined as tyrosinase inhibitors. For example, the trimer-to-tetramer procyanidins from apples showed not only the tyrosinase inhibitory activity, but also anti-melanogenesis activity in B16 melanoma cells ( Shoji et al. 2005 ). The

in ovariectomised rats. In addition, phlorotannins are a class of polyphenolic compounds that are one of the most common classes of secondary metabolites in marine algae. Phlorotannins have been shown to have a variety of biological functions, including anticoagulant, antimelanogenesis, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities [ 39 ]. Thus, on the same lines, our findings suggested that ISE may stimulate osteoblast differentiation and mineralization through the induction of BMP-2 and Runx2 signalling pathways. Taken together, our results

coronopifolia (L.) Acta Velit 2016 3 108 114 [33] Mustapha N, Mokdad-Bz/ouicha J, Maatouk M, Ghedira K, Hennebelle T, Chekir-ghedira L. Antitumoral, antioxidant, and antimelanogenesis potencies of Hawthorn, a potential natural agent in the treatment of melanoma. Melanoma Res. 2016;26:211–22. 26795272 10.1097/CMR.0000000000000240 Mustapha N Mokdad-Bz/ouicha J Maatouk M Ghedira K Hennebelle T Chekir-ghedira L Antitumoral, antioxidant, and antimelanogenesis potencies of Hawthorn, a potential natural agent in the treatment of melanoma . Melanoma Res 2016 26 211 22 [34] Belkhir M

. Bioorg Chem 2004 32 1 12 [16] Boström J, Olsson RI, Tholander J, Greasley PJ, Ryberg E, Nordberg H, et al. Novel thioamide derivatives as neutral CB1 receptor antagonists. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010;20: 479–82. Boström J Olsson RI Tholander J Greasley PJ Ryberg E Nordberg H et al Novel thioamide derivatives as neutral CB1 receptor antagonists Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2010 20 479 82 [17] Thanigaimalai P, Sharma VK, Lee KC, Yun CY, Kim Y, Jung SH. Refinement of the pharmacophore of 3,4-dihydroquinazoline-2(1 H )-thiones for their anti-melanogenesis activity. Bioorg Med Chem

]. Various selenium containing molecules were found to possess significant biologi- cal efficacies such as anticancer [6–9], anti-inflammatory [10, 11], antimelanogenesis [12, 13], and neuroprotective [14] activities. Organoselenium scaffolds are common in commercially available drug molecules [15–21]. Figure 9.1 represents a glimpse of sele- nium containing bioactive scaffolds [22]. As a result, during the last decade, synthesis of organoselenium compounds dragged considerable attention and thus a large num- ber of methods are available for the synthesis of selenium