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due to their major advantages of being economical and environmental friendly [ 1 ]. A biotrickling filter (BTF) is one such biological reactor, which consists of a packed bed column with continuous flows of pollutant-laden gas stream and trickling liquid [ 2 ], flowing either co-currently or counter-currently to each other. The packed bed consists of pollutant degrading micro-organisms immobilized on an inert packing material while the trickling liquid contains nutrients for sustenance of microbial population in the packed bed. Details of BTF are given in

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL REACTOR ENGINEERING Volume 10 2012 Article A38 Simplified Simulation Model of a Biotrickling Filter Used for the Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide From Biogas Anil K. Dhussa∗ Surinder S. Sambi† Surendra Kumar‡ Shashi Kumar∗∗ Jitendra K. Prajapati†† ∗Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Govt. of India, akdhussa@nic.in †G.G.S. Indraprastha University, Delhi, sssambi@ipu.edu ‡Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, skumar@iitr.ernet.in ∗∗Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, sashifch@iitr.ernet.in ††Indian Institute of Technology

Abstract

This study was aimed at testing the possibility of using a biotrickling filter for the treatment of waste air resulting from animal farming. For this purpose, a laboratory and pilot biotrickling filter with a moving bed were constructed. In the first case, the removal of ammonia emissions from waste air, by means of ammonia nitrogen utilization by present micro-organisms under laboratory conditions, was tested. The mass load of the biotrickling filter was gradually increased by slowly increasing the ammonia concentration. In the second case, the pilot biotrickling filter with a moving bed was installed inside a pig farm and it was tested under real operation conditions. In the first case, the highest value of the laboratory biotrickling filter’s elimination capacity was 6.2 gNH3 m−3 of filling h−1. The elimination capacity of the pilot filter was 1.6 gNH3 m−3 of filling h−1. The source of carbon for the present micro-organisms was a 1% sucrose solution, which simulated waste water with high content of CODCR. [

have high operating and processing costs related to energy and chemicals, and also produce hazardous byproducts that must be treated before discharge [ 7 ]. In contrast, the biological treatments (biofilters, biotrickling filters, and bioscrubbers) have advantages of low operating cost and energy consumption; high removal efficiency; less secondary pollution; and public acceptance as an environmentally friendly technology [ 8 , 9 ]. A biofilter has been proposed as a feasible and effective option for abatement of H 2 S in recent years [ 10 ]. The removal capability

). Hydrodynamic characteristics in biotrickling filters as affected by packing material and hydraulic loading rate, Journal of Environmental Engineering, 134, 5, pp. 346-352. Shatton, J.B., Ward, C., Williams, A. & Weinhouse, S.A. (1983). Microcolorimetric assay of inorganic pyrophosphatase, Analytical Biochemistry, 130, pp. 114-119. Van, L.H., Wuyts, E. & S champ, N. (1986). Elimination of hydrogen sulphide from odorous air by a wood bark biofilter, Water Research, 20, pp.1471-1476. Wijeyekoon, S., Mino, T., Satoh, H. & Matsuo, T. (2004). Effects of substrate loading rate on

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Balakrishnan An Analysis of a Standard Reactor Cascade and a Step-Feed Reactor Cascade for Biological Processes Described by Monod Kinetics 27 Nabil Abdel-Jabbar, Wasim Ahmed and Zarook Shareefdeen System Identification and Control of a Biotrickling Filter 39 C. M. Narayanan Studies on Computer-Aided Design and Analysis of Three-Phase Semifluidized Bed Bioreactors 55 Chemical Product and Process Modeling 2015 | Volume 10 | Issue 1

, B., Dehghanzadeh, R., Pourmoghadas, H., Kalantary, A., Torkian, A., “Removal of Styrene from Waste Gas Stream Using a Biofilter”, J. Research in Medical Sciences, Vol. 6, 31-39(2004). 8 International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering Vol. 6 [2008], Article A6 Chou, M.S.,Hsiao, C.C., “ Treatment of Styrene-contaminated Airstream in Biotrickling Filter Packed with Slags”, J. Environ. Eng., Vol.124, No.9, 0844-0850(1998) Dehghanzadeh, R.,Torkian, A., Bina, B., Poormoghaddas, H. and Kalantary, A., “Biodegradation of Styrene Laden Waste Gas Stream Using a

and low contaminant concentrations (Le Cloirec et al., 2001). Biotreatment is often less expensive than physical and chemical treatment methods which include incineration, adsorption and scrubbing (Groenestijn and Kraakman, 2005). In addition, biotreatment processes offer superior environmental performance because they typically produce innocuous waste streams. VOC emissions may include contaminants that are both soluble and insoluble in water. Biotrickling filters involve a continuous, recirculating stream of liquid that flows over packed bed media; these

.1016/j.bbrc.2011.06.176 [36] Mecocci P., Mac Garvey U. & Beal M.F. 1994. Oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA is increased in Alzheimer’s disease. Ann. Neurol. 36: 747–751. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.410360510 [37] Montes M., Veiga M.C. & Kennes C. 2010. Two-liquid-phase mesophilic and thermophilic biotrickling filters for the biodegradation of α-pinene. Bioresour. Technol. 101: 9493–9499. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.07.101 [38] Mueller W.P., Coppenrath E. & Pfluger T. 2013. Nuclear medicine and multimodality imaging of pediatric neuroblastoma

.biortech.2004.05.006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2004.05.006 [44] Wang, S. B., & Peng, Y. L. (2010). Natural zeolites as effective adsorbents in water and wastewater treatment. Chemical Engineering Journal, 156, 11–24. DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2009.10.029. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2009.10.029 [45] Xue, N. T., Wang, Q. H., Wu, C. F., Zhang, L. H., & Xie, W. M. (2010). Enhanced removal of NH3 during composting by a biotrickling filter inoculated with nitrifying bacteria. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 51, 86–93. DOI: 10.1016/j.bej.2010.05.007. http://dx.doi.org/10