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References Batchelor , W.J., He, J. ( 2005 ) A new method for determining the relative bonded area. Tappi J. 4 : 23 –28. Bawden , A.D., Kibblewhite, R.P. ( 1997 ) Effects of multiple drying treatments on kraft fibre walls. J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 23 : J340 –J346. Brunauer , S., Emmett, P.H., Teller, E. ( 1938 ) Adsorption of gases in multimolecular layers. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 60 : 309 –319. El-Hosseiny , D.H., Abson, D. ( 1979 ) Light scattering and sheet density. Tappi 62 : 127 –129. He , J., Batchelor, W.J., Johnston, R. ( 2003a ) The behaviour of fibers in wet

Short communication Relative bonded area - A different approach Robert M. Soszyriski, Kirkland, Quebec, Canada Keywords: Fiber networks, Bonded area. SUMMARY: A mathematical expression is put forward for the relative bonded area (RBA) in a three-dimensional model of paper. An estimate of RBA in a real sheet of paper can be made knowing sheet's-apparent density as well as the number of fibre layers. ADDRESS OF THE AUTHOR: 16792 Hymus Boulevard, Kirkland, Quebec, Canada, H9H 3L2. The relative bonded area (RBA) quantifies the degree of inter

Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal Vol 24 no. 2/2009 199 KEYWORDS: Fiber-fiber bond, Bonded area, Paper strength SUMMARY: A method is presented for determining the bon- ded area of single fiber-fiber bonds, the method is based on microtome serial sectioning and image analysis. The size and three-dimensional structure of the bonded area are assessed together with cross sectional fiber morphology. Additionally, holes and overlapping but unbonded fiber regions can be measured. 87 fiber-fiber bonds from an unbleached and unbeaten soft- wood kraft pulp were

39Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal Vol 17 no. 1/2002 Keywords: Fibers, Fiber bonding, Paper properties, Equations, Optical scattering, Bonding strength, Tensile properties, Bonded area, Wet pressing SUMMARY: About 40 years ago, Nordman proposed that the specific fibre-fibre bond strength in paper could be measured by determining the irreversible work of straining a sheet and the change in optical scattering coefficient that results. The ratio was considered to be the work required to break fibre-fibre bonds. Since that time evidence that it is a reliable

Study of the joint strength between regenerated cellulose fibres and its influence on the sheet strength Annsofie Torgnysdotter and Lars W5gberg, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden KEYWORDS: Bonds, Bonding strength, Bonded area, Fibre bonding, Chenlical bonding, Electrostatic charge, joints, dry strength, strain, swelling SUMMARY: The joint strength between single fibres was inve- stigated directly by measurements of perpendicular cross bon- ded fibres and compared with the corresponding paper properti- es. Regenerated cellulose fibres, rayon, were

186 Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal Vol 20 no. 2/2005 LumiSilk 100 g KEYWORDS: Bonded area, Bonding strength, Counter-ions, Flexibility, Hornification, Joints, Pulp yield, Tensile strength, Unbleached pulp SUMMARY: The joint strength between single fibres and its influence on strength properties of papers was evaluated, taking into account the effect of pulp yield, ionic form of the carboxyl groups and drying. Fibre/fibre joint strength stayed almost con- stant for pulps with yield between 45 % and 50 %. Further increasing the pulp yield increased the

Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal Vol 21 no. 3/2006 411 KEYWORDS: Bonded area, Bonding strength, Chemical bonds, Dry strength, Joints, Kraft pulp, Paper strength, Polyelectrolyte, Recycling, Swelling SUMMARY: This work examines the possibility of changing the properties of the contact zone between fibres to control the physical properties of paper. This was done by linking the degree of contact of the contact zones in the fibre/fibre joints to joint strength, and furthermore, to the fibre and sheet properti- es. Kraft pulps of various yields were dried

440 Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal Vol 19 no. 4/2004 KEYWORDS: Bonded area, Chemical bonds, Dry strength, Electrostatic charge, Joints, Regenerated cellulose, Strain, Swelling SUMMARY: A study was undertaken to explore the influence of electrostatic interactions between the fibres during sheet for- ming and sheet consolidation on the strength of both the fibre/fibre joints and the paper. To establish this relationship, the joint strength between individual fibres was determined and compared with the strength of sheets made from these corres- ponding

On the mechanism behind wet strength development in papers containing wet strength resins Lars Wiigberg and Mirjam Bjorklund, SCA Research AB, Sundsvall, Sweden Keywords: Adsorption, Wet strength agents, Bonding strength. Infrared spectra, Mechanical properties, Chemical pulps. Car- boxymethylation. Electrostatic charge, Swelling. Bonded area, Polyelectrolytes. SUMMARY: The improvement in strength when a polyamide- amine epichlorohydrine (PAE) polymer is added to a number of carboxymethylated pulps has been investigated in order to see whether or not


Dielectric-barrier discharge treatment was used to modify fully bleached softwood kraft and unbleached softwood thermomechanical pulp handsheets. The effect of dielectric-barrier discharge treatment on the physical strength properties and dimensional stability of handsheets were analyzed. Increased dielectric-barrier discharge treatment power resulted in significant increases in the wet tensile index of handsheets. Increases in the surface acid content of pulp fibers do not appear to contribute to changes in paper properties, nor do changes to relative bonded area within handsheets. Enhanced wet strength via dielectric-barrier discharge treatment corresponds to increased dimensional stability. This appears to be due to fiber cross-linking in the case of bleached kraft pulp, since the wet-strain decreases as wet tensile and wet Young's modulus increase. In the case of unbleached thermomechanical pulp, the wet-strain shows no decrease, yet the wet Young's modulus increases as the wet tensile index increases.