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39Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal Vol 17 no. 1/2002 Keywords: Fibers, Fiber bonding, Paper properties, Equations, Optical scattering, Bonding strength, Tensile properties, Bonded area, Wet pressing SUMMARY: About 40 years ago, Nordman proposed that the specific fibre-fibre bond strength in paper could be measured by determining the irreversible work of straining a sheet and the change in optical scattering coefficient that results. The ratio was considered to be the work required to break fibre-fibre bonds. Since that time evidence that it is a reliable

nowadays. It was reported that inorganic nanoscale particles could be used to improve the mechanical and physical properties of the polymer matrix [ 4 ], [ 5 ], [ 6 ], [ 7 ], [ 8 ], [ 9 ]. Therefore, the incorporation of nanoparticles into PU, by an appropriate technique, is a promising approach to improve the properties of PU such as hardness, wear resistance, and bonding strength to the substrate. However, despite several years of research in this field, there is still a need to combine the suitable process with good mechanical properties. Based on the reaction that

] Peng Y., Zhang C., Zhou H. and Liu L. (2013): On the bonding strength in thermally sprayed Fe-based amorphous coatings . – Surf. Coat. – Technol. – vol.218, pp.17–22. [25] Winnicki M., Małachowska A., Piwowarczyk T., Rutkowska-Gorczyca M. and Ambroziak A. (2016): The bond strength of Al + Al 2 O 3 cermet coatings deposited by low-pressure cold spraying . – Arch. Civil Mech. Eng. – vol.16, pp.743–752. [26] Gu L., Fan X., Zhao Y., Zou B., Wang Y., Zhao S. and Cao X. (2012): Influence of ceramic thickness on residual stress and bonding strength for plasma sprayed

is channel deformation caused by un-optimized temperature, pressure and time. Thus, properly controlling temperature, pressure and time is critical in achieving high bond strength while limiting deformation of the microchannels due to bulk polymer flow. Thermal bonding can be analyzed using the diffusion theory, where macromolecular chain segments may move across the interface and establish entanglements on the opposite surface [6]. The bonding strength depends on the depth of interdiffusion of polymer molecules across the interface, which is a function of the

applied to the enamel in order to increase the bond strength between the tooth surface and the composite resin [ 29 ] and to enhance the resistance against marginal microleakages [ 10 , 16 ]. A primer can also increase etched enamel damping [ 29 ] and etched enamel retention [ 4 , 36 ]. Furthermore, a thin layer of primer makes it possible to remove the brackets more easily. However, several studies also demonstrate that the use of a primer has no influence on shear bond strength (SBS) [ 22 , 37 , 39 ]. In orthodontics, the most commonly used adhesive systems are

[1] Treece R.A., Jirsa J.O., Bond strength of epoxy-coated reinforcing bars, ACI Material Journal, 1989, 86, 167–174 [2] Cairns J., Abdullah R., Fundamental tests on the effect of epoxy coating on bond strength, ACI Material Journal, 1994, 91, 331–338 [3] ACI Committee 408R., Bond and development of straight reinforcing bars in tension, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, USA, 2003 [4] Azizinamini A., Pavel R., Hatfield E., Ghosh S.K.,Behaviour of spliced reinforcing bars embedded in high-strength concrete, ACI Structural Journal, 1999, 96, 826–835 [5

Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie 191, 39-43 (1990) © by R. Oldenbourg Verlag, Miinchen 1990 - 0044-2968/90 $3.00 + 0.00 Bond valence VS bond length and Pauling's bond strength: The Ca —O bond G. Chiari and G. Ferraris Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Sezione di Mineralogia e Cristallografia, Universita di Torino, via Valperga Caluso 37, 10125 Torino, Italy Received: March 28, 1989; revised October 31, 1989 Bond valence j Pauling's bond strength / Calcium —oxygen co-ordination Abstract. For cations showing different co-ordination numbers (CN) a curve for bond

. The contact interface between the concrete and the surface of the bar develops a magnitude of bond that affects this composite action [ 1 ]. Several studies have been conducted in order to investigate the bond performance of FRP bars and to compare such bond properties with steel reinforcement in concrete. These studies include tests on beams and pull-out specimens [ 2 ], [ 3 ], [ 4 ]. Both of these tests, which were carried out to measure the bond strength of reinforcing bars, give different values. Experimental studies have shown that the bond strength from beam

-MTP test specimen in terms of thickness ratio. Then, the adhesive bond strength (i.e. ShS of the bond line) of the test specimen can be obtained by conducting the short-span bending test. Figure 2: Stress distribution and location of neutral axis (NA) of a two-layer composite beam. This study aimed at examining the feasibility of a three-point short-span bending test method for measuring the bond strength of cross-laminated, asymmetrical two-layer LSL (2L asym CL-LSL) composite specimens. The three-point short-span bending test was chosen as it is stipulated in the North

materials [ 22 ] has been extensively studied. Positive or negative deviations from linear additive rules are usually observed, and many equations have been proposed to describe the relationship between the glass transition and its composition, such as the Gordon-Taylor and Kwei [ 23 ] equations. In this work, polyacrylate rubber (ACM) was selected as the polymer matrix. Four kinds of small molecule-hindered phenol structures with different steric hindrances and number of phenolic groups were mixed with the ACM to form hydrogen bonds with different bond strengths. The