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Literatur, Demokratie, ZusammenLebenswissen
Series: Mimesis, 84

had lost its main “source of study”: Germany’s colonial possessions.31 Two years later, Rocha Lima again visited Brazil, once again impelled by private interests. And just like before, he sought to capitalize on his visit to promote Brazilian–German relations and German cultural diplomacy. 27 Rocha Lima, “Bericht über die Reisen” (note 22). 28 Politisches Archiv des Auswärtigen Amtes (hereinafter PAAA) 78999. Niederländi- sche Gesandtschaft an Auswärtiges Amt, July 19th, 1920. 29 Historical Archive of Itamaraty. Received telegrams, 203/1/08 – 1922–1923. 30

the German em­ bassy, closely supervised the organization. The involvement of federation leaders with the Integralistas and their par­ ticipation in plotting against the Vargas regime led to the arrest of several of them in June 1938. Their arrest became an issue in Brazilian-German relations and will be discussed below.12 The Nazis in Brazil were remarkably successful in gain­ ing control of German societies, clubs, and associations. By 1937 they controlled an overwhelming majority of the near­ ly 2,300 German organizations of all types in the country. As

the months of 1940 to increase their bargaining power with both Ger­ many and the United States, hoping to follow a course that would place them on the right side no matter who won the war. Brazilian-German relations had all but collapsed during 1938 because of Reich Ambassador Karl Ritter's unreason­ able demands that the Vargas government allow the Nazi party to function freely in Brazil. When Aranha and Vargas iAranha to Vargas, Rio, Mar. 11, 1940, OAA. Crisis and Uncertainty—177 refused to tolerate Ritter's presence any longer and forced a mutual

- tegic importance, 4; University of, 334; vice president, 312 Index—511 Brazilian Academy of Letters, 317 Brazilian-American Association, 127 Brazilian-American relations, 43, 65, 123-147. 193-201' 315-238. 271, 281-284, 296-297, 332, 340, 342 Brazilian-Argentine relations, 110, 113, 119-121, 139-140, 281-284, 292-293. 320-324, 340 Brazilian-German relations, 77-83, 86-91, 94-101, 115-116, 182, 252; affair of the ambassadors, 103- 105, 176-178; Caffery, 285-286; trade, 128, 129, 132, 190-193, 199-201 Brazilian-Italian relations, 90-91, 181, 184


fissionable by slow neutrons and thus poten- tially a material for sustaining a chain reaction. Thorium, like uranium, occurs widely in the earth’s crust, but similarly not often in sufficient concentration to provide eco nom- ically workable deposits. Before World War II, it was most commonly used in the manu- facture of gas mantles” (Jones 1985, 292n1). 13. Brazil- Germany relations during the 1930s suggested that Brazil would support Germany in the event of war. President/dictator Getulio Vargas (1930–45, 1951–54) reportedly enjoyed Adolf Hitler’s com pany and was