had lost its main “source of study”: Germany’s
colonial possessions.31 Two years later, Rocha Lima again visited Brazil,
once again impelled by private interests. And just like before, he sought to
capitalize on his visit to promote Brazilian–Germanrelations and German
27 Rocha Lima, “Bericht über die Reisen” (note 22).
28 Politisches Archiv des Auswärtigen Amtes (hereinafter PAAA) 78999. Niederländi-
sche Gesandtschaft an Auswärtiges Amt, July 19th, 1920.
29 Historical Archive of Itamaraty. Received telegrams, 203/1/08 – 1922–1923.
the German em
bassy, closely supervised the organization. The involvement
of federation leaders with the Integralistas and their par
ticipation in plotting against the Vargas regime led to the
arrest of several of them in June 1938. Their arrest became
an issue in Brazilian-Germanrelations and will be discussed
The Nazis in Brazil were remarkably successful in gain
ing control of German societies, clubs, and associations. By
1937 they controlled an overwhelming majority of the near
ly 2,300 German organizations of all types in the country.
of 1940 to increase their bargaining power with both Ger
many and the United States, hoping to follow a course that
would place them on the right side no matter who won the
Brazilian-Germanrelations had all but collapsed during
1938 because of Reich Ambassador Karl Ritter's unreason
able demands that the Vargas government allow the Nazi
party to function freely in Brazil. When Aranha and Vargas
iAranha to Vargas, Rio, Mar. 11, 1940, OAA.
Crisis and Uncertainty—177
refused to tolerate Ritter's presence any longer and forced
fissionable by slow neutrons and thus poten-
tially a material for sustaining a chain reaction. Thorium, like uranium, occurs widely in
the earth’s crust, but similarly not often in sufficient concentration to provide eco nom-
ically workable deposits. Before World War II, it was most commonly used in the manu-
facture of gas mantles” (Jones 1985, 292n1).
13. Brazil- Germanyrelations during the 1930s suggested that Brazil would support
Germany in the event of war. President/dictator Getulio Vargas (1930–45, 1951–54)
reportedly enjoyed Adolf Hitler’s com pany and was