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-regulatory hormones are atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic pep- tide (BNP), C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), den- droaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP) and urodilatin, which play an important role in the homeostasis of body fluid volume. ANP and BNP have already been demonstrated to have diagnostic usefulness in a great number of studies, which have progressed from bench to bedside. This article summarizes existing data on ANP and related peptides in cardiovascular and other disorders, and outlines the potential clinical usefulness of these markers. Clin Chem Lab Med

References 1 Sudoh T, Minamino N, Kangawa K, Matsuo H. C-Type natriuretic peptide (CNP): a new member of the natriuretic peptide family identified in porcine brain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1990; 168: 863–70. 2 Barr CS, Rhodes P, Struthers AD. C-Type natriuretic peptide. Peptides 1996; 17: 1243–51. 3 Kalra PR, Anker SD, Struthers AD, Coats AJS. The role of C-type natriuretic peptide in cardiovascular medicine. Eur Heart J 2001; 22: 997–1007. 4 D'Souza SP, Davis M, Baxter GF. Autocrine and paracrine actions of natriuretic peptides in the heart. Pharmacol Ther

] Touyz R. M., Picard S., Schiffrin E. L., Deschepper C. F., Cyclic GMP inhibits a pharmacologically distinct Na+/H+ exchanger variant in cultured rat astrocytes via an extracellular site of action, J. Neurochem., 1997, 68, 1451–1461 http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1471-4159.1997.68041451.x [77] Miyajima M., Arai H., Okuda O., Hishii M., Nakanishi H., Ishii H. et al., Effect of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) on water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expression in cultured astrocytes, Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res., 2004, 122, 109–115 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molbrainres.2003.10.026

Abstract

The natriuretic peptide family comprises atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP), and urodilatin. The activities of natriuretic peptides and endothelins are strictly associated with each other. ANP and BNP inhibit endothelin-1 (ET-1) production. ET-1 stimulates natriuretic peptide synthesis. All natriuretic peptides are synthesized from polypeptide precursors. Changes in natriuretic peptides and endothelin release were observed in many cardiovascular diseases: e.g. chronic heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction and coronary artery disease.

118 Stepan et al., CNP in fetal circulation J. Perinat. Med. Detection of C-type natriuretic peptide in fetal circulation 28 (2000) 1182121 Holger Stepan1, Diego Walther2, Renaldo Faber1, and Thomas Walther2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Leipzig, and 2Max- Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin-Buch, Germany 1 Introduction C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a 22 amino- acid peptide with a high structural homology to the other members of the natriuretic peptide family, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic

: week of gestation = -0.01 x CNP (pg/ml) + 26.17, ρ < 0.97). In normal gestation CNP plasma levels were in the same range as in the non-preg- nant control group (8.1 ±1.7 pg/ml) figure 1. 4 Discussion C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is the third member of the natriuretic peptide family that is re- garded to play an important role in the cardiovas- cular control and regulation of renal function in man [3,10,17]. The described biological effects of CNP that is highly expressed in human brain and kidney [10,18] are hypotensive, diuretic and nat- riuretic. Furthermore

treating the animals with receptor blockers before peptide administration. INTRODUCTION Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), the first member of the family of natriuretic peptides, was first isolated from cardiocytes 191 and later discovered in the brain 122,23,26,30,33,34, 43,47,52,53/. More recently, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) have been isolated from the brains of Reprint address: Prof. Gyula Telegdy Inst. Pathophysiology Albert Szent-Györgyi Medical University Semmelweis u . l ,POB531 Szeged 6701, Hungary

396 Stepan et al, CNP in labour, cesarean section and puerperium Short communications J. Perinat. Med. 26(1998) 396-399 C-type natriuretic peptide in maternal plasma in spontaneous labour, at elective cesarean section and during puerperium Holger Stepan1, Thomas Walther2, and Renaldo Faber1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Leipzig, and 2Max-Del- brück-Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin-Buch, Germany 1 Introduction C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a recent addi- tion in the family of natriuretic peptides which in- cludes atrial

dbSNP147 databases. Heterozygous missense mutation of the NPR2 gene can cause familial short stature. It has been reported that the C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP)-natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B) pathway has a vital effect on endochondral ossification in longitudinal growth [ 42 ]. NPR-B, which converts CNP signals, is encoded by NPR2 . Until now, the molecular mechanisms of NPR2 mutation causing short stature have not been clearly elucidated. It is possible that a missense NPR2 mutation causes a defect in trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER

more common cause of hyponatremia after cerebral insults than SIADH4·5. CSW can be quite severe and cause potentially lethal complications, even after routine transsphenoidal pituitary surgery". Natriuretic peptides have been proposed as the factors responsible for CSW12. The natriuretic peptide family consists mainly of ANP, BNP and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), the two former being secreted by the myocardium (atrium and ventricles respectively) in response to many patho- physiological stimuli and the latter being an endothelium-derived mediator13. It