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Introduction Since December 2019, an outbreak caused by a novel coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) and causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged in China and has then spread inside and outside the country [ 1 ]. On 11 March 2020, the outbreak was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in view of its rapid global spread [ 2 ]. COVID-19 has now affected virtually all countries worldwide. Laboratory medicine is one of the most important front-line professions assisting the fight against the

Introduction The relatively recent appearance of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a life-threatening infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is now challenging response and resilience of healthcare systems all around the globe [ 1 ]. The upgrade of this outbreak to a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) [ 2 ] highlights the serious nature of the disease, which has caused unexpected and unprecedented disruption and challenges to laboratory practices [ 3 ], [ 4 ]. In particular, the highly

1 Introduction Covid-19 already has had an enormous impact endangering the lives and livelihoods of many people around the world. Especially for people caught up in conflict and often living in cramped and unsanitary conditions in refugee sites, Covid-19 poses enormous risks. Will the Covid-19 pandemic also decisively alter peacekeeping, peacebuilding and even more generally humanitarian engagement? Will it provide a fatal blow for Peaceland Autesserre (2014) uses Peaceland to describe the community of foreign organizations, such as the UN and NGOs, engaged

Introduction A novel flu-like coronavirus named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19, a severe illness mainly affecting the respiratory tract), has been initially associated with an epidemic focused in Wuhan, China at the end of 2019 [ 1 ], [ 2 ], [ 3 ]. From there, SARS-CoV-2 has spread quickly throughout China and to neighboring Asian countries but, immediately after, it infected most countries of the world [ 4 ], [ 5 ]. On March 11, 2020 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the rapidly

INTRODUCTION Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a communicable disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a member of the Coronaviridae family, which also includes severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus(MERS-CoV). [ 1 ] It emerged in Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and continues to spread around the world. As of June 8, 2020, COVID-19 has been confirmed in 6,931,000 people worldwide. [ 2 ] People are generally

References 1. Yuan S, Liao Z, Huang H, Jiang B, Zhang X, Wang Y, Zhao M Comparison of the Indicators of Psychological Stress in the Population of Hubei Province and Non-Endemic Provinces in China During Two Weeks During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in February 2020.-Med Sci Monit. 2020 Apr 15;26:e923767. doi: 10.12659/MSM.923767. 2. Huang Y, Zhao N.-Mental health burden for the public affected by the COVID-19 outbreak in China: Who will be the high-risk group?-Psychol Health Med. 2020 Apr 14:1-12. doi: 10.1080/13548506.2020.1754438. [Epub

propelled by enhanced transportation – the spread of the Black Death plague is tied to increased trade over the Silk Road and by sea from Asia to Europe ( Zacher 1999 ), while the Spanish flu is linked to increased trade and immigration during and after World War I. Those past and other pandemics resulted in advancements in sanitation and healthcare practices, including the use of quarantines and social distancing. As in the case of earlier pandemics, the spread of COVID-19 is facilitated by a large-scale transportation transformation, which took the form of massive

Introduction Several cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were first identified in the city of Wuhan, China in December 2019 [ 1 ]. Those with COVID-19 generally present with fever, dry cough and fatigue [ 2 ]. On 3rd January 2020, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) obtained from a patient with pneumonia of unknown origin in Wuhan was used to sequence the genome of the novel coronavirus for the first time with the help of Sanger sequencing, Illumina sequence and nanopore sequencing. The virus was classified as a beta-coronavirus, which is closely related to

References 1. WHO characterizes COVID-19 as a pandemic. (11 March 2020); Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novelcoronavirus-2019/events-as-they-happen . WHO Director-General’s opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 - 11 March 2020. (23 March 2020); Available from: https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-sopening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-oncovid-19%2D%2D-11-march-2020 ) 2. GuanWJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, et al. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med. 2020 Feb;28 Epub 3. Caspard

1 Introduction The number of both emerging infectious diseases and epidemic events has been increasing by 10 since 1940 ( Jones et al. 2008; Smith et al. 2014 ). Covid-19 is the last zoonotic disease linking animal reservoirs and human beings that turned epidemic and even uniquely pandemic. Understanding the origin of this disease is crucial not only to understand the way the SARS-CoV-2 has been selected to provoke infection in human beings but also to prevent further emergence. Hereafter, we critically review recent data published on Covid-19 and analyse new