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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL REACTOR ENGINEERING Volume 8 2010 Article A102 Ionic Liquid-Aided Carboxymethylation of Kraft Pulp Jyri-Pekka Mikkola∗ Jean-Christoffer Tuuf† Alexey Kirilin‡ Pia Damlin∗∗ Tapio Salmi†† ˚ ˚ ˚ ˚ ˚ ∗Abo Akademi University and Umeå University, jpmikkol@abo.fi †Abo Akademi University, jean-christoffer.tuuf@wartsila.com ‡Abo Akademi University and D. Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Akirilin@abo.fi ∗∗Abo Akademi University, pdamlin@abo.fi ††Abo Akademi University, tsalmi@abo.fi ISSN 1542-6580 Ionic Liquid

The influence of carboxymethylation on the fiber f locculation process Luciano Beghello, Abo Akademi University, Finland and Tom Lindstrom, Royal lnstitute of Technology Stockholm, Sweden Keywords: Fiber, Fiber flocs, Yield stress, Floc size, Carboxy- methylation, Consistency. SUMMARY: This study deals with the effect of charged groups on the rheology and state of dispersion of papermaking fibers. The charged groups were introduced onto a softwood kraft pulp through carboxymethylation. The rheology of the fiber network was studied using a jar with a

. p. 343—502. Peterson, R. W. 1964. How moisture affects strength of casein bonds. Can. Wood Prod. Ind. 64, 28—30. Carboxymethylation of Cellulose Acetate By Ahmed Nagaty*), Olfat Y. Mansour and Yehia A. Fahmy National Research Centre, Cellulose and Paper Lab., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt Keywords Cellulose Carboxymethyl cellulose Carboxymethylation Cellulose acetate Schlüsselwörter (Sachgebiete) Cellulose Caiboxymethylcellulose Carboxymethylierung Celluloseacetat Carboxymethylation of Cellulose Acetate Summary The rate of Carboxymethylation of cellulose acetate runs

ARTIFACTUAL HETEROGENEITY OF HUMAN FIBRINOGEN POLYPEPTIDE CHAINS CAUSED BY CARBOXYMETHYLATION Cemal Kuyas, André Haeberli, and P. Werner Straub Laboratory for Thrombosis Research, Department of Medicine, Inselspital, CH-3010 Bern, Switzerland. Summary The heterogeneity of the polypeptide chains of human fibrino- gen obtained after full reduction and alkylation was compared to the one of asialofibrinogen by isoelectric focusing. A surprisingly great number of the B3- and y-chain variants was observed, and even more striking no decrease of the num- ber of

Introduction Carboxymethylation (CM) is one of the most promising approaches for increasing the strength of paper. This is especially true when the fiber components of paper are deficient in bonding ability, as in the case of recycled kraft fibers (Duker and Lindström 2008; Duker et al. 2008). Substantial increases in the dry strength of paper were observed in paper that was prepared by CM of the surfaces of bleached softwood kraft pulp (Ruffini 1966; Lindström and Carlsson 1982; Torgnysdotter and Wågberg 2004). Depending on the ionic conditions during drying

sulfonic groups) because of its high -CH 2 -COOH content. AL is an important byproduct in spent soda pulping liquor from the pulping industry in China. Due to its poor solubility in water and its insufficient performance as a surfactant, AL is seldom used directly. Thus, the chemical modification of AL is an important research topic (Malutan et al. 2007, 2008). Gan et al. (2012) studied the carboxymethylation of AL in detail and obtained soluble CML products with different COOH contents. The aim of the present study was a better understanding of the physicochemical

PAPER PHYSICS Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal Vol 30 no (3) 2015 443 Preparation of individualised lignocellulose microfibrils based on thermomechanical pulp and their effect on paper properties Fredrik Wernersson Brodin and Øyvind Eriksen KEYWORDS: Lignocellulose microfibrils, Tensile strength, Carboxymethylation, Homogenisation, Paper, Thermomechanical pulp SUMMARY: Although mechanical pulp can be considered as a potential raw material for preparation of microfibrils, suitable pre-treatment methods have been missing. Consequently, the

Carboxymethylated spruce galactoglucomannans: preparation, characterisation, dispersion stability, water-in-oil emulsion stability, and sorption on cellulose surface Chunlin Xu, Christer Eckerman, Annika Smeds, Markku Reunanen, Patrik C. Eklund, Rainer Sjöholm, and Stefan Willför KEYWORDS: Carboxymethylation, Cellulose surface, Emulsion stability, Galactoglucomannans, Sorption, Spruce, Structural features SUMMARY: Natively acetylated galactoglucomannans (GGMs) is the main hemicellulose type in most softwood species and can be utilised as, for

PAPER PHYSICS Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal Vol 28 no (4) 2013 588 Study of the influence of charges on refinability of bleached softwood kraft pulp Marie Bäckström, Erik Melander, and Elisabet Brännvall KEYWORDS: Bleached softwood kraft pulp, Carboxymethylation, Refinability, Tensile strength, WRV SUMMARY: To investigate how the number of charged groups affects the refinability of pulp, different levels of fibre charge were introduced to fully bleached softwood kraft pulp by bulk carboxymethylation. The chemical compositions of the fibres

Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal Vol 23 no. 1/2008 65 KEYWORDS: Surface carboxymethylation, CMC, Drying, Hornification, Paper strength properties, WRV SUMMARY: This paper deals with the ability to use high molecular weight CMC as a dry strength agent in paper and how the drying of the pulp, either before or after the CMC attachment, affects the mechanical properties of the paper. The effect of the counter-ion form used during drying and reslus- hing was also investigated. In the case of the calcium and hydrogen counter-ion forms, drying after CMC