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Thorexanthin, a New Carotenoid Pigment from the Caribbean Sponge Thorecta horridus Ernesto Fattorusso*, Virginia Lanzotti3, Silvana Magno, and Luciano Mayol Dipartimento di Chimica delle Sostanze Naturali, Via D. Montesano, 49,1-80131, Naples, Italy Z. Naturforsch. 47b, 1477- 1479 (1992); received March 28, 1992 Thorectidae, Thorecta horridus, Pigment, Carotenoid, N M R Spectra The red-pigmented Caribbean sponge Thorecta horridus contains thorexanthin (3-methoxy- /?-;f-caroten-4-one) as a new carotenoid pigment. Its structure was determined by spectroscopic

Mechanism of the Allomerization of Chlorophyll: Inhibition of the Allomerization by Carotenoid Pigments Paavo H. Hynninen* Department of Biochemistry, University of Kuopio, P.O.B. 138, SF-70101 Kuopio, Finland Z. Naturforsch. 36b, 1010-1016 (1981); received May 19, 1981 Autooxidation of Chlorophyll, Free Radicals, Carotenoids, Photosynthesis It is shown that the allomerization of chlorophylls a and b is effectively inhibited by carotenoid pigments. In the light of this finding, two possible mechanisms are considered for the allomerization. One assumes the

Effect of Aeration on the Production of Carotenoid Pigments by Rhodotorula rubra-lactobacillus casei Subsp. casei Co-Cultures in Whey Ultrafiltrate Emilina D. Simova*, Ginka I. Frengova, and Dora M. Beshkova Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, Institute of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 26 “Maritza” Blvd., 4002 Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Fax: ++3592700109. E-mail: * Author for correspondence and reprint requests Z. Naturforsch. 58c, 225Ð229 (2003); received August 13/October 30, 2002 Under intensive aeration (1.3 l/l min) the

Effect of Potassium Foliar Nutrition on Changes in the Content of Carotenoid Pigments and on Some Parameters of the Nutritional Value of Tomato Fruit

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of potassium foliar nutrition on changes in the content of carotenoid pigments and on some parameters of the nutritional value of tomato fruit. The experiments were conducted on three tomato cultivars: Faustine F1, Atut F1 and Magnus F1. All trial plots with plants were additionally fertilized with 0.3% Final K and 0.3% Kalisol whilst in the control plots no foliar nutrition with potassium was applied. The chemical composition of tomato fruit depended on two factors: tomato cultivar and fertilization method and differed from year to year of investigation. In 2005 neither the cultivar nor the foliar fertilization affected the level of β-carotene while the fertilization with Final K resulted in the increase of lycopene content compared with the control. In 2006 and 2007 the fruits from treatments fertilized with Kalisol had significantly higher content of β-carotene and lycopene in compareson with those treated with Final K. The obtained results do not clearly show the effect of potassium foliar fertilization on the increase of dry matter, sugars or acids contant in tomatoes. Foliar fertilization with Kalisol increased the content of L-ascorbic acid in tomatoes in 2005 and 2007. In 2006 the content of this acid in fruit treated with Kalisol was at the same level as untreated plants but higher in plants treated with Final K. The effect of foliar nutrition with potassium had a variable influence on the level of the investigated macroelements (K, P, Ca, Mg). The content of β-carotene was positively correlated with the content of phosphorus and negatively correlated with the acidity of fruit.

New C30-Carotenoic Acid Glucosyl Esters from Pseudomonas rhodos Hans Kleinig, Institu t für Biologie II der Universität, Schänzlestraße 1, D-7800 Freiburg Rüdiger Schmitt, Lehrstuhl für Biologie IX, Universität Regensburg, Universitätsstraße 31, D-8400 Regensburg Walter Meister, Gerhard Englert, and Hans Thommen Central Research Units and Department of Agrochemistry, F. Hoffmann-La Roche & Co. Ltd., CH-4002 Basel Z. Naturforsch. 34 c, 181 — 185 (1979) ; received December 14, 1978 C30-Carotenoic Acid Glucosyl Ester, Pseudomonas rhodos The carotenoid pigments of

Pure Appl. Chem., Vol. 74, No. 8, pp. 1409–1417, 2002. © 2002 IUPAC 1409 Regulation of carotenoid synthesis and accumulation in plants* Francis X. Cunningham, Jr. Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA Abstract: Although genes that encode most enzymes of the carotenoid pathway in higher plants have been identified, the regulatory mechanisms that govern the synthesis and accu- mulation of carotenoid pigments are still obscure. Recent findings relevant to two aspects of carotenoid pathway control are

Mechanism of Paraquat Action: Inhibition of the Herbicidal Effect by a Copper Chelate with Superoxide Dismutating Activity Richard J. Youngman and Alan D. Dodge School of Biology, University of Bath. Bath, Avon, BA2 7AY, U.K. Z. Naturforsch. 34 c, 1032 — 1035 (1979) ; received May 26, 1979 Paraquat, Plant Pigments, Fatty Acids, Superoxide, Copper Chelate, Flax Cotyledons The treatment of flax cotyledons (Linum usitatissimum) with paraquat was shown to decrease the levels of chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments. The fatty acid content of chloroplast fragments

chromaticity coordinates (L*, a*, b*) of ground pasta. The chromaticity coordinates L*, a*, b* respectively denote: – L* values measure black to white (0–100). – a* (+a*: redness when positive, -a*: greenness when negative); – b* (+b*: yellowness when positive, -b*: blueness when negative); 2.5.5 Carotenoid pigments The carotenoid pigments were determined as described in the ISO 1151 [ 43 ]. A sample of 2.5 g (milling wheat, semolina, dough or couscous) was placed in a test tube added with a 12.5 ml of saturated butyl alcohol (20 %). The mixture was stirred for 24 h with

characteristic of the carotenoid composition is the high percentage (51.1%) of - carotene (a carotenoid pigment with the highest provitamin A activity) as compared to 12.9% and 33.7%, respectively, for the other two individual pigments Ð torulene and torularhodin. Exopolysaccharides (12.8 g/l) synthesized by the yeast and lactic acid cultures, identified as acid biopolymers containing 7.2% glucuronic acid, were isolated in the cell-free supernatant. Mannose, produced exclusively by the yeast, predominated in the neutral carbohydrate bio- polymer component (76%). The mixed

to which energetic coupling of ß-carotene in the reaction centre of PS-II and that of other antenna carotenoid pigments is regulated by the portion of the xanthophyll violaxanthin, which is under control of the xanthophyll cycle. Introduction Photosynthetic oxygen evolution is the direct consequence of vectorial electron transport in photosystem II (PS-II) from water, via chlorophyll P 680, pheophytin, the first quinone electron ac­ ceptor Q a to the second quinone electron ac­ ceptor Q b (for a review see Govindjee and Cole­ man, 1993). There are several