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water and produces a Mo(IV) hydride/hydroxide ( 60 ). The latter should eliminate hydrogen and furnish the starting complex ( Scheme 17 ). Scheme 17 Proposed cycle for electrocatalytic water reduction using a Mo(IV) oxo complex. Homogeneous catalysis Water splitting using homogeneous catalysts is a rapidly growing field of research, and thus, a broad range of organometallic complexes that were developed as catalyst components are known to date. Due to this, only selected examples from the literature will be mentioned in this section. Considering the general reaction

[1] Balakrishnan, K., Sachdev, A., & Schwank, J. (1990). Chemisorption and FTIR study of bimetallic Pt-Au/SiO2 catalysts. Journal of Catalysis, 121, 441–455. DOI: 10.1016/0021-9517(90)90252-f. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9517(90)90252-F [2] Báleš, V., Bobok, D., & Kossaczký, E., (1983). Adsorption equilibriu on activated carbon of phenol, p-cresol, and p-nitroaniline in aqueous solutions. Chemical Papers, 37, 289–296. [3] Barrett, E. P., Joyner, L. G., & Halenda, P. P. (1951). The determination of pore volume and area distributions in porous substances. I

that whenever different elements are combined in the same proportions and in the same manner, identical crystalline compounds are formed. It will now be shown that when the same elements are combined in the same proportions but in a different manner (presumably with the atoms in different relative positions), compounds are formed which have different chemical properties and are different in structure." Mitscherlich later did his best to promote Berzelius' new teaching. Catalysis A few years later, in 1835, Berzelius advanced the concept of catalysis

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL REACTOR ENGINEERING Volume 1 2003 Review R4 Catalysis Engineering on Three Levels Jacob A. Moulijn∗ Javier Perez-Ramirez† Annelies van Diepen‡ Michiel T. Kreutzer∗∗ Freek Kapteijn†† ∗Delft University of Technology, j.a.moulijn@tnw.tudelft.nl †javier.perez.ramirez@hydro.com ‡Delft University of Technology, a.e.vandiepen@tnw.tudelft.nl ∗∗Delft University of Technology, kreutzer@tnw.tudelft.nl ††TUDelft, f.kapteijn@tnw.tudelft.nl ISSN 1542-6580 Copyright c©2003 by the authors. All rights reserved. Catalysis Engineering on Three

1 Introduction With respect to efficient and sustainable methods catalytic processes nowadays constitute a key technology to access the majority of synthetically derived chemicals on industrial scale [ 1 ]. Apart from heterogenous approaches, homogenous catalysis has become well established not only for the synthesis of fine chemicals. In the context of traditional catalysis the lowering of the energetic barrier for a transformation of interest relies on the activation of a single substrate with a specific catalyst and the subsequent reaction with an unactivated

Objective The Second International Conference Catalysis for Renewable Sources: fuel, energy, chemicals which will take place from July 22–July 28, 2013 in Lund, Sweden has been organized by the Boreskov Institute of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, and Lund University. The first conference CRS-1 took place in St. Petersburg in 2010. It brought togehter about 180 participants from 27 countries world wide. The principal objective of the conference will be to give a wide overview regarding the recent achievements in the development of

The Second International Conference CATALYSIS FOR RENEWABLE SOURCES: FUEL, ENERGY, CHEMICALS (CRS-2) was held on July 22-28, 2013 at the old university town Lund, situated in the southern Sweden. The First conference CRS-1 took place in St. Petersburg on 2010, and had a great response as an event which demonstrated a high interest to the highly actual and developing trends in science and technology. The First conference collected about 200 participants from 27 countries all over the world. Among the conference organizers were Missouri University of

References 1 G. A. Somorjai, Y. Li. Introduction to Surface Chemistry and Catalysis , 2nd ed., John Wiley, Hoboken (2010). 2 G. Ertl, H. Knozinger, J. Weitkamp. Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalysis , Wiley-VCH, Weinheim (2008). 3 C. H. Bartholomew, R. J. Farrauto. Fundamentals of Industrial Catalytic Processes , 2nd ed., John Wiley, New York (2005). 4 10.1126/science.1083671 , A. T. Bell. Science 299 , 1688 (2003). 5 10.1126/science.1082332 , D. R. Rolison. Science 299 , 1698 (2003). 6 10.1126/science.1102420 , M. S. Chen, D. W. Goodman. Science 306 , 252

Introduction Catalysis, including heterogeneous, homogeneous, and enzymatic catalysis, is vitally important for the development of modern society. Improving the activity of catalysts to produce more molecules per unit area per unit time was the main focus in the 20 th century, while achieving 100 % selectivity in all catalyst-based chemical processes has been the Holy Grail of catalysis science in the 21 st century [ 1 , 2 ]. Among the three types of catalysis, heterogeneous catalysis has some advantageous features, such as easy separation and long lifetime