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Holzforschung, Vol. 61, pp. 504–508, 2007 • Copyright by Walter de Gruyter • Berlin • New York. DOI 10.1515/HF.2007.090 Article in press - uncorrected proof Studies on fluorescence of cellulosics Alain Castellan1,*, Reinaldo Ruggiero2, Elisabete Frollini3, Ludmila A. Ramos3 and Christine Chirat4 1 Université Bordeaux 1, US2B, UMR 5103 CNRS- INRA-UBx, Talence, France 2 Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Instituto de Quı́mica, Uberlândia, MG, Brazil 3 Instituto de Quı́mica de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, São Carlos, SP, Brazil 4 Ecole Francaise de

developing owing to its positive environmental impact [1]. In particular, cellulose fibres, obtained from plants, have high strength and modulus suited for composite structures for various applications. The aim is to prepare cellulose acetate reinforced with kenaf fibre composites that have high modulus, strength, and flexibility, with the introduction of nanoparticles. There are three categories of natural fibres: bast, seed or fruit, and leaf. For this study, kenaf, which is a bast fibre, is used. Kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus , is a fast-growing tropical crop. It is

1 Introduction The most abundant biopolymer in nature, which is biodegradable, biocompatible, as well as renewable, is cellulose ( 1 ). Cellulose with a formula of (C 6 H 10 O 5 ) n is a carbohydrate linear polymer including repeated β-D-glucopyranose units by linkage of β(1→4) and with three hydroxyl groups per anhydroglucan unit providing high capacity of its surface modification ( 2 ). The molecular structure of this biopolymer is important as it gives the specific properties to cellulose, such as biodegradability, hydrophilicity, chirality, and high

List of abbreviations AGU anhydroglucose unit AMIMCl 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride BMIMCl 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride CA cellulose acetate CMC carboxymethyl cellulose CNC cellulose nanocrystals CS cellulose sulfate Cuam cuprammonium hydroxide DMAc N,N -dimethylacetamide DMSO dimethylsulfoxide DP degree of polymerization (average degree) DS degree of substitution (average degree) EMIMAc 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate EMIMCl 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride HEC hydroxyethyl cellulose IL ionic liquid MC methyl cellulose MCC microcrystalline

Introduction The development of cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) have attracted significant interest in the last few decades due to the unique characteristics, such as their high aspect ratio and ability to form strong network structures. CNFs are highly hydrophilic and form hydrogels at very low solid content (Junka et al. 2014 ). They also have high surface area-to-volume ratio, high Young’s modulus, high tensile strength and low coefficient of thermal expansion (Nishino et al. 2004 ). CNFs have shown great potential in several applications including biomedical

Holzforschung, Vol. 62, pp. 129–135, 2008 • Copyright by Walter de Gruyter • Berlin • New York. DOI 10.1515/HF.2008.051 Article in press - uncorrected proof Cellulose aerogels: Highly porous, ultra-lightweight materials Falk Liebner1, Antje Potthast1, Thomas Rosenau1,*, Emmerich Haimer2 and Martin Wendland2 1 Department of Chemistry, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria 2 Institute of Chemical and Energy Engineering, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria *Corresponding author. Department

Introduction Cellulose is a ubiquitous polymer of biological origin that belongs to polysaccharides. Its primary sources are wood and cotton, but it can be separated also from plants, algae, some bacteria and the tunicate Ascidiacea [ 1 ], [ 2 ]. They produce annually 100–300 billion tons of cellulose that can be considered as an inexhaustible raw biomass 2 ], [ 3 ]. Abundance and availability in combination with excellent mechanical properties and low disposal cost make it widely employed material in daily life. Traditional cellulosic products, textile and

1843 Pure Appl. Chem., Vol. 78, No. 10, pp. 1843–1855, 2006. doi:10.1351/pac200678101843 © 2006 IUPAC Materials of cellulose derivatives and fiber-reinforced cellulose–polypropylene composites: Characterization and application* Peter Zugenmaier Institute of Physical Chemistry, Clausthal University of Technology, Arnold-Sommerfeld-Strasse 4, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany Abstract: Cellulose is a biodegradable polymer produced sustainably in large quantities by nature. It has been used by mankind for centuries because of its favorable properties, but suf