-exchange membranes constitute a promising tool which, when used properly, can be applied in the synthesis of ionic compounds used in chemical and other industries. An interest in application of electrodialysis for chemicalsynthesis has grown, recently, which has resulted in an increasing number of scientific papers. The intention of this review is to provide a summary on the applicability of ion-exchange membranes and the prospects of electrodialysis-based processes in chemicalsynthesis. 2 Ion-exchange membranes The most widely used IEMs consist of polymeric resins with attached
6430 4  Omachi H, Segawa Y, Itami K. Synthesis and racemization process of chiral carbon nanorings: a step toward the chemicalsynthesis of chiral carbon nanotubes. Org Lett 2011;13:2480–3. 21486080 10.1021/ol200730m Omachi H Segawa Y Itami K. Synthesis and racemization process of chiral carbon nanorings: a step toward the chemicalsynthesis of chiral carbon nanotubes Org Lett 2011 13 2480 3  Hitosugi S, Nakanishi W, Yamasaki T, Isobe H. Bottom-up synthesis of finite models of helical (n,m)-single-wall carbon nanotubes. Nat Commun 2011;2:492. 10.1038/ncomms
Pure &App/. Chern., Vol. 70, No. 2, pp. 407-410, 1998.
Printed in Great Britain.
Q 1998 IUPAC
Chemicalsynthesis of oligosaccharide mimetics
Ecole Normale Supkrieure, Dkpartement de Chimie, URA CNRS 1686
24, Rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France
Abstract : A variety of C-disaccharides have been selectively and expeditiously synthesized
through the so-called tether approach.
'Oligosacch&ides are involved in a increasing number of biological processes. This has stimulated the
development of selective methods for the
Yasutomo Segawa, Akiko Yagi and Kenichiro Itami
3 ChemicalSynthesis of Cycloparaphenylenes
Since carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were first discovered by Iijima in 1991 , the synthe-
sis of CNTs has attracted the interest of many scientists because of their outstanding
physical properties as well as their potential applications in technology [2–7]. Sin-
gle-walled CNTs can be considered as rolled-up structures of graphene sheets. The
manner in which the graphene sheet is wrapped is given by the chiral index, which
is represented by a pair of
of (5,5) CNT template 3 with benzyne, generated from o -trimethylsilylphenyl triflate and Bu 4 NF. Surface-catalyzed growth strategy It was always our ambition to develop methods for the chemicalsynthesis of CNTs from hemispherical polyarenes that rely entirely on metal-free organic reactions, such as those described above. As a backup plan, however, we knew that CNTs could be grown on nanoparticles of catalytically active metals [ 3 ] and hypothesized that attachment of hemispherical polyarenes to such metal surfaces should lead to the preprogramed growth of
Due to the unique properties of graphene, single layer, bilayer or even few layer graphene peeled off from bulk graphite cannot meet the need of practical applications. Large size graphene with quality comparable to mechanically exfoliated graphene has been synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The main development and the key issues in controllable chemical vapor deposition of graphene has been briefly discussed in this chapter. Various strategies for graphene layer number and stacking control, large size single crystal graphene domains on copper, graphene direct growth on dielectric substrates, and doping of graphene have been demonstrated. The methods summarized here will provide guidance on how to synthesize other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene.
reactive nature of radicals [ 6 ]. Microfluidics, known for its precise handling of fluid hydrodynamics [ 7 ], turns out to be an ideal tool to control the radical diffusion at the interface between the plasma and the liquid. In this study, a plasma integrated microfluidics device has been developed for chemicalsynthesis. The transfer of reactive species (especially radicals) from the gas phase to the liquid phase is tuned by the multiphase flow. A high transfer efficiency is ensured by the high surface/volume ratio of plasma bubbles. Yamanishi et al. [ 8 ] presented a
CHEMICALSYNTHESIS OF OLIGO- AND
Max-Planck-Institut für experimentelle Medizin,
Chemische Abteilung, Gö"ttingen, Germany
Genetics, a subject with diverse aspects, is here treated from the nucleic
acid chemist's point of view, since nucleic acid chemists have contributed
and still can contribute a great deal to the problern of genetic information,
genetic transcription, and regulation (Figure 1).
Synthetic polynucleotides of known composition and known sequence in
many cases allow definition of a problern more
ChemicalSynthesis of Tropoyl Coenzyme A
Georg G. Gross and Karl J. Koelen
Abteilung Allgemeine Botanik, Universität Ulm, Oberer Eselsberg, D-7900 Ulm
Z. Naturforsch. 35 c, 363-366 (1980); received March 10, 1980
Tropoyl Coenzyme A, Thioester, Tropoyl N-Hydroxysuccinimide Ester
Tropoyl coenzyme A has been synthesized in good yields via the corresponding N-hydroxysuc-
cinimide ester. The UV-spectrum of the purified thioester has an absorption maximum at 257 nm;
at this wavelength, a molar extinction coefficient of 19.2 x 106 [cm2 mol-1] has been determined