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[1] J.C. Dunlap: “Molecular bases for circadian clocks”, Cell, Vol. 96, (1999), pp. 271–290. [2] C.F. Ehret and J.J. Wille: “Photobiology of microorganisms”, Halldal, P. (Ed.), Wiley, New York (USA), 1970, pp. 369–416. [3] C.H. Johnson, S.S. Golden, M. Ishiura and T. Kondo: “Circadian clocks in prokaryotes”, Mol. Microbiol., Vol. 21, (1996), pp. 5–11. [4] M.W. Young and S.A. Kay: “Time zones: a comparative genetics of circadian clocks”, Nat. Rev. Genet., Vol. 2

human beings and mice, the lighting regimen and daily routine, AAAS Press, Washington DC, 1959 [5] Reppert S.M., Weaver D.R., Coordination of circadian timing in mammals, Nature, 2002, 418, 935–941 [6] Roenneberg T., Merrow M., Circadian clocks — the fall and rise of physiology. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell. Biol., 2005, 6, 965–971 [7] Gwinner E., Circadian and circannual programmes in avian migration, J. Exp. Biol., 1996, 199, 39–48 [8] Froy O., Gotter A.L., Casselman A.L., Reppert S.M., Illuminating the circadian clock in monarch butterfly migration. Science, 2003, 300

[1] Murray, J.D., Mathematical Biology, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993 [2] Goldbeter, A., Biochemical Oscillations and Cellular Rhythms: The molecular bases of periodic and chaotic behaviour, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 1996 [3] Shearman L.P., Sriram S., Weaver D.R., Maywood E.S., Chaves I., Zheng B. et al., Interacting molecular loops in the mammalian circadian clock, Science, 2002, 288, 1013–1019 [4] Hastings M

[1] de Mairan J., Observation botanique, Histoire de l’Academie Royale des Science, 1729, 35–36 (in French) [2] Mackey S.R., Golden S.S., Winding up the cyanobacterial circadian clock, Trends Microbiol., 2007, 15, 381–388 [3] Brunner M., Káldi K., Interlocked feedback loops of the circadian clock of Neurospora crassa, Mol. Microbiol., 2008, 68, 255–262 [4] Benito J., Zheng H., Ng F.S., Hardin P.E., Transcriptional feedback loop regulation, function, and ontogeny in

day. In the last few years, substantial progress has been made to unravel the central processes of circadian regulation at the molecular level (Pokhilko et al., 2010, 2012; Guerriero et al., 2012). However, the detailed feedback mechanism between carbon metabolism and the circadian clock is less understood. Plants adjust the rates of starch accumulation and degradation in response to changes in the light-dark cycle with clues from the circadian clock, e.g., the starch degradation is controlled by the clock (Graf et al., 2010). Reversibly, the periodic, endogenous

model organism for specific scientific questions such as chloroplast biogenesis and func- tion, the composition of the flagella including its basal apparatus, or the mechanism of the circadian clock. Sequencing of its chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes have already been completed and a first draft of its nuclear genome has also been released re- cently. In C. reinhardtii several circadian rhythms are physiologically well characterized, and one of them has even been shown to operate in outer space. Cir- cadian expression patterns of nuclear and plastid genes have

Chloride Availability Affects the Malate Content and its Control by the Circadian Clock in Pulvini of Phaseolus coccineus L. W.-E. Mayer, W. A. Rüge, N. Starrach, and R. Hampp Institut für Biologie I der Universität Tübingen, A uf der Morgenstelle 1, D-7400 Tübingen, Bundesrepublik Deutschland Z. Naturforsch. 42c, 5 5 3 -5 5 8 (1987); received Decem ber 23, 1986 Chloride Availability, Circadian Leaf M ovem ent, Citrate, Malate, Phaseolus coccineus L. In soil-grown 3- to 4-weeks-old Phaseolus coccineus L. plants the chloride content changed antagonistically in

Temperature Sensitive Events between Photoreceptor and Circadian Clock? Ursula Hamm, Maroli K. Chandrashekaran, and Wolfgang Engelmann Institut für Biologie I, Tübingen (Z. Naturforsch. 30 c, 240—244 [1975] ; received November 22, 1974) Circadian Rhythm, Photoreceptor, Temperature, D rosophila pseudoobscura The phase shifting action of low temperature pulses of 6 °C and 2 h duration administered to the various phases of the D rosophila pseudoobscura circadian rhythm and the action of light pulses given 30 min after the beginning of these low temperature

responses in the Djungarian hamster ( Phodopus sungorus ). Neuroscience Letters , 67 : 68–72. H ölker F., W olter C., P erkin E. K. & T ockner K., 2010: Light pollution as a biodiversity threat. Trends in Ecology & Evolution , 25 : 681–682. H urley S., G oldberg D., N elson D., H ertz A., H orn -R oss P. L., B ernstein L. & R eynolds P., 2014: Light at night and breast cancer risk among California teachers. Epidemiology , 25 : 697–706. I kegami K. & Y oshimura T., 2012: Circadian clocks and the measurement of daylength in seasonal reproduction

Introduction The circadian clock coordinates gene expression with daily activities and is necessary to ensure efficient utilization of nutritional resources [1]. A central clock exists in the brain, and it communicates with and entrains numerous peripheral clocks [2]. The links between core clock function and metabolism are many: mice and humans have circadian cycles of glucose, insulin, fatty acids, and metabolites; metabolic disturbances are common in mice with mutations in core clock genes; mouse models of obesity, either genetic or diet-induced, show altered