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schistosomia- sis. Most often, however, crayfish introductions were motivated by our desire to eat them, which in turn generates economic interests and stimulates further human-assisted dispersal; C. destructor, for instance, after its first introduction to Western Australian farm dams for aquaculture in 1932, rapidly spread, now threatening the over ten endemic crayfish species of this state. A handful of other species are highly valued as gourmet food, and, in locations such as Scandinavia and Louisiana, feasting on them has become a cultural icon. As a

An in vitro Culture System for Crayfish Organs Konrad Daig and Klaus-Dieter Spindler Zoologisches Institut der Technischen Hochschule Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstr. 10, D-6100 Darm­ stadt Z. Naturforsch. 34 c, 1243— 1247 (1979); received June 5/August 17, 1979 In vitro Culture, Crayfishes, Integument Organs of crayfishes — mainly integument of Astacus leptodactylus — have been kept in an in vitro culture for several days. The medium consists of 2 parts of van Harreveld saline and one part of horse serum, supplemented with antibiotics for long term cultures. This

A Serum-Free in vitro Culture System for Crayfish Organs Gerd Gellissen, Marco Traub, and Klaus-Dieter Spindler Institut für Z oologie III, Universitätsstraße 1, D-4000 Düsseldorf 1, Bundesrepublik Deutschland Z. Naturforsch. 41c, 472—476 (1986); received Decem ber 16, 1985 Crayfishes, Protein Biosynthesis and Secretion, Hypodermis, Midgut Gland, Hemocyanin Midgut gland and hypodermis of the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus have been cultured in a serum-free medium for several days. The medium consists of 1 part of van Harreveld solution and 1 part of an amino

Isolation of Nuclei from Crayfish Tissues and Demonstration of Nuclear Ecdysteroid Receptors Margarethe Spindler-Barth Diabetes-Forschungsinstitut an der Universität, Aufm Hennekamp 65, D-4000 Düsseldorf 1 Ursula Bassemir EMBL, Meyerhofstr. 1, D-6900 Heidelberg Paul Kuppert and Klaus-Dieter Spindler Institut für Zoologie III, Universität Düsseldorf, Universitätsstr. 1, D-4000 Düsseldorf 1 Z. Naturforsch. 36 c, 326-332 (1981); received October 16/November 17, 1980 Nuclei, Crayfishes, Nuclear Ecdysteroid Receptors Nuclei from hypodermis and midgut gland of the

References Ackefors H. 1998 - The culture and capture crayfish fisheries in Europe - World Aquaculture 29: 18-24, 64-67. Ackefors H., Lindqvist O.V. 1994 - Cultivation of freshwater crayfishes in Europe - In: Freshwater crayfish aquaculture in North America, Europe, and Australia: families Astacidae, Cambaridae and Parastacidae (Ed.) J.V. Huner. Food Products Press, NY, London, Norwood: 157-216. Andrzejewski W., Czarnecki M., Mastyñski J. 2001 - Morphometric features of crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Esch.) coming from Gaj Lake - Anim. Sci. 3: 47-55. Chybowski

850 Notizen Stress-Induced Changes in Cell Titer of Crayfish Hemolymph Alf Hamann Institut für Tierphysiologie und Angewandte Zoologie der Freien Universität Berlin (Z. Naturforsch. 30 c, 850 [1975] ; received August 11, 1975) Crayfish, Hemolymph Coagulation, Hemocytes, Stress, Hormonal Regulation Cell titer in peripheral hemolymph of crayfishes rises in less than one hour after administration of stress. The stress may be wounding or handling of the animals. It is a well known fact, that the hemocyte titer in crustacean hemolymph varies greatly according

466 Notizen Ray Path and Reflection Mechanisms in Crayfish Eyes Klaus Vogt Biologisches Institut der Universität Stuttgart (Z. Naturforsch. 32 c, 466 — 468 [1977] ; received March 28, 1977) Physiological Optics, Crustacean Eye In crayfish eyes image formation not due to refraction but to total internal and multilayer reflection in an ortho­ gonal mirror system is described. Relevant optical parame­ ters (geometry and refractive indices) in this eye are determined. The investigation of the eyes of various crayfish species led me to a principle of image

References Ahmadi M. 2016 – The Feasibility of Electrotaxis and Phototaxis in American Crayfish – Improved Experimental Designs. Lambert, Academic Publishing. Alonso F. 2001 – Efficiency of electrofishing as a sampling method for freshwater crayfish population in small creeks – Limnetica 20: 59-72. Dorn N.J., Urgelles R., Trexler J.C. 2005 – Evaluating active and passive sampling methods to quantify crayfish density in a freshwater wetland – J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 24:346-356. Green N., Bentley M., Stebbing P., Andreou D., Britton R. 2018 – Trapping for invasive

Introduction Cases of co-occurrence among freshwater decapods (Malacostraca: Decapoda) are limited, but among them, interactions between native crayfishes are not rare. Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet, 1858) and Austropotamobius torrentium (Schrank, 1803) co-occur in two Dalmatian rivers in Croatia ( Karaman 1929 ) and in Tyrol (Austria) ( Sint et al. 2006 ), even if in the latter case this phenomenon could be due to man introduction. In France, Laurent (1988) reported in a small Seine tributary river the co-occurrence of Au . pallipes and

Notizen 691 Optics of the Crayfish Eye Klaus Vogt Biologisches Institut der Universität Stuttgart (Z. Naturforsch. 30 c, 691 [1975] ; eingegangen am 1. Juli 1975) Physiological Optics, Crustacean Superposition Eye Histological and optical observations in the eye of cray­ fish lead to a new hypothesis of the superposition ray path in this eye. Rays from an object point entering through different facets are superimposed not by refracting systems as in other superposition eyes but by a radial arrangement of orthogonal reflecting planes which are formed by the