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Rotwelschdialekte

Yoruba 15 Yoruba language functionality in the present century Although the numbers of Yoruba language speakers and competence in Yoruba language production both declined, African languages continued to fulfill the limited functions of a cryptolect for second- and third- generation speakers. Phrases were exchanged by interlocutors to signify in-group affinity. When someone recognized the language in a statement or song (m)uttered by another, this recognition led to friendship based on shared pride in a common heritage. Furthermore, an obsolescing language easily

most economic and often austere ways possible. Each of us can well imagine what kinds of language and meaning lose out in such a supply-side efficiency model: our treasured local varieties, cryptolects, nuanced and specialized languages, Indigenous knowledges, and counter-languages, which by necessity exacerbate the global just-in-time delivery mandates of commercial multilingualism. What is particularly breathtaking about this domain of research and development (CLIR and NLP) is its bold reliance on the concept of ‘ontology’ to give order to its various closed sets

ancestries of the Scandinavian Traveller population. The parallel situation in Britain has received more attention in this regard, and it is likely that what we have learned about this may equally apply in Scandinavia. There are two principal hypotheses for the British situation: firstly, that contemporary Angloromani is the result of pro- gressive language attrition or decay — a position favored by Romanol- ogist Donald Kenrick, and secondly, that it is a deliberately contrived cryptolect dating from the sixteenth century, this being my own belief. I reject the

/7/2017 3:36:54 PM 229 wolf” and “Tambov wolf” belong to blatnoi yazyk—a cryptolect characteristic of the Soviet Thieves in Law phenomenon. The Soviets had the policy of mixing the so-called “Enemies of the People,” often members of intelligentsia who were suspected of anti-Soviet sympathies, with proper criminals and bandits, in order to intimidate the former and ensure that their living conditions were intolerable. The term refers to the “criminal proper,” and not to those prisoners of the gulags who had been convicted on a political basis. The term “Briansk

/7/2017 3:36:54 PM 229 wolf” and “Tambov wolf” belong to blatnoi yazyk—a cryptolect characteristic of the Soviet Thieves in Law phenomenon. The Soviets had the policy of mixing the so-called “Enemies of the People,” often members of intelligentsia who were suspected of anti-Soviet sympathies, with proper criminals and bandits, in order to intimidate the former and ensure that their living conditions were intolerable. The term refers to the “criminal proper,” and not to those prisoners of the gulags who had been convicted on a political basis. The term “Briansk

their Spanish grammatical structures with Portuguese ones after Portuguese became the dominant language (Duff 1950, Bourgeois 1911, cited in Eloeva - Rusakov 1990: 38). Eloeva and Rusakov (1990: 42) assert that the major reason for the peculiar development of many Romany varieties was the need to preserve them as cryptolects which were inaccessible to the surrounding popula- tion. We have no evidence that Copper Island Aleut followed its peculiar path for this reason. However, the cases mentioned above demonstrate that such a development, occurring when all

Jahr mention a Swedish-Sami pidgin (1984b: 70). 24. Iversen (1950) has described a Norwegian-Romani cryptolect. Vari- eties of Romani-lexifier varieties of Scandinavian are also dealt with by Hancock (1992a). 25. A Pidgin Samoyed is spoken in the southwestern part of the Taymyr Peninsula, according to Evgenij Xelimskij (1987). 26. A Chinese-Russian pidgin spoken in the Mongolian Russian border region around Kjaxta (Kyakhta) from the 1720s is described by Neu- mann (1966). 27. A similar Chinese-Russian pidgin, which also contains elements from Polish, spoken

more isolated villages in the Colombian Chocó, nearly all of whose residents are black, exhibit subtle linguistic traits reminiscent of earlier bozal language, but despite rumors of “special” Afro- Colombian cryptolects still in existence, no significant departures from regional vernacular Spanish have been discovered (see M. Ruiz García 2000 and Schwe- gler 1991a for a confirmation that no cryptolects survive in the Chocó today). Table 1.1 illustrates the principal post-bozal communities investigated to date (corresponding references are in the bibliography). The

began as a cryptolect introduced by circles of young people devoted to music and songs celebrating the subculture of cannabis and hallucinogens. It then spread to cover all sorts of drug consumption and trade, and later provided a repertoire of metaphorical expressions of wide currency, even among young people who do not use drugs. The first phase began with the success of the early rock ‘n roll music cele- brating the effect of drugs, with songs by the Beatles, the Rolling Stones and Bob Dylan. In the 1960s and 1970s in Italy there was nothing similar to the rock