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Abstract

Thermal-treated carbons from acorn and cypress cone were prepared and characterized. The uptakes of heavy metal ions (Ag+, Cd2+ and Cr+3) and organics (phenol, methylene blue and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate) from aqueous solution have been studied. Effects of activation by HCl and HNO3 acids on the sorption properties of these carbons were investigated by mass titration, sorption isotherms, IRS, SEM and XRS. The models of Langmuir and Freundlich do not represent our sorption data very well. An earlier proposed empirical correlation is applied successfully to carry out a parameter of comparison between the studied carbons. The acidic treatment changes the surface chemical properties of the two thermal-treated carbons lowering their sorption performances. The carbons show good capacities to uptake metals, phenol and methylene blue, but sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate is removed from its solutions to minor extent. The up-taking properties are found similar to those of two worldwide used commercial grade carbons.

pine cones, Cent. Eur. J. Chem., 2013, 11, 78-85. [17] Toscano G., Cimino G., New carbon from low cost vegetal precursors: acorn and cypress cone, Cent. Eur. J. Chem.,2013, 11, 2012-2021. [18] Li D., Ma X., Liu X., Yu L., Preparation and characterization of nano-TiO2 loaded bamboo-based activated carbon fibers by H2O activation, BioResources, 2014, 9, 602-612. [19] Zhang Y.-J., Xing Z.-J., Duan Z.-K., Li M., Wang Y., Effects of steam activation on the pore structure and surface chemistry of activated carbon derived from bamboo waste, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2014, 315

the branch. We found that the rats' skill in extracting seeds from the closed pine cone, and their ability to survive on pine seeds as a major food source, is not a genetic trait ; rather, the skill is passed on from mother to offspring through a process of cultural transmission (Aisner and Terkel 1985). The technique of obtaining cypress cone seeds is relatively simple due to NOTES 309 the simple arrangement of the cone scales. The rat gnaws away the sides of the cones until the small seeds are exposed and then feeds on them. Rats of both subpopulations were

] Fernandez, M. E., Nunell, G. V., Bonelli, P. R., & Cukierman, A. L. (2010). Effectiveness of Cupressus sempervirens cones as biosorbent for the removal of basic dyes from aqueous solutions in batch and dynamic modes. Bioresource Technology, 101, 9500–9507. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.07.102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.07.102 [11] Fernandez, M. E., Nunell, G. V., Bonelli, P. R., & Cukierman, A. L. (2012). Batch and dynamic biosorption of basic dyes from binary solutions by alkaline-treated cypress cone chips. Bioresource Technology, 106, 55–62. DOI: 10

round cones more than 8 mm diam. See also Chinese Arborvitae (Platycla- dus orientalis). Notes: Th e species has become a popular orna- mental, with more than 30 described forms and cultivars. It was logged heavily in the 20th century; the wood is light and very decay-resistant. Some trees on the Gulf coastal plain have been assigned to subsp. henryae (Li H.L.) E. Murray; these in- clude the largest known trees in the species. port Orford CedarAtlantic White Cedar cone leyland Cypress cone umbrella pine cone immature cone cone pollen cones 40 CupressACeAe

had placed ben- zoin, lysimachia, rose petals, and a lock of her hair, as well as some pine and cypress cones, and on the two sides of which she had stitched an inscription of eight characters that read: The pine and the cypress are evergreen,2 her human countenance is like a flower. When she had finished preparing this keepsake, she intended to give it to Ch’en Ching- chi, but he did not happen to be in the anteroom where he lived just then, so she dropped it inside through the window. later on, when Ch’en Ching- chi opened the door and went in, he saw the

'iuChao-ao jji ^ 1¾, Tu-shih hsiang-chu ££ I^jF Qi, 5 vols. (Peking: Chung- hua shu-chu, 1979), vol. 2, chuan 8, pp. 620-621. 'the sage of poetry' ¢3 mtewm: 90 Theoretical Background Examine in what he rests—we see much in which Tu Fu finds no rest. Cypress cone and roseate clouds are the foods of immortals, foods of purity and otherworldliness, and they are to be Tu Fu's food; they are exposed, the bitter and insubstantial food of hungry necessity. He can find no contentment in them, nor can he pretend to contentment. In hardship, hunger, and cold there is no

west coast and is very like redcedar in many respects. In the south- ern part of their shared range, Nootka-cypress usually grows at higher Figure 2.27. Two thujas on same scale. (a) Eastern white-cedar and (b) Western redcedar. Figure 2.28. Western redcedar. (a) Twig with cones. (b) A single cone, enlarged. (c) Seeds; note double wings. identifying the conifers 31 elevations than redcedar, but farther north it is found down to sea level. The two species are easy to tell apart if cones can be found. A Noot- ka-cypress cone is a very small sphere surfaced with

when I heard my own footsteps I stopped. Something astringent and unsatisfied remained in my mouth, dissolved in my saliva by all this black uncertainty, as though I had bitten into a cypress cone. And yet, at the same time, I felt something solid, rich, pure, which gave me a peculiar sense of euphoria, and made me think, T H E D E A D H 0 U S E • 101 with mathematical precision, how easily I would surmount tomorrow's difficulties in my work, something that had struck me hitherto as insuperable. A harvest moon had risen among the cypresses. Behind my back I

cypress-cones / That spired above the wood" (TW, 331). The landscape of withdrawal or seductive ease was, as we shall see, to represent a particularly strong temp­ tation for Tennyson, but in this poem happiness is not to be found in the solitude of the cavern in the woods; the speaker 6 Or, to use the terminology devised by Appleton, a prospect-dominant landscape has given way to a refuge-dominant landscape. Appleton would also describe the cavern within the wood as the reduplication of refuge sym­ bols. The Experience of Landscape, p. 73ff. and p. 270. T H E P