Thermal-treated carbons from acorn and cypress cone were prepared and characterized. The uptakes of heavy metal ions (Ag+, Cd2+ and Cr+3) and organics (phenol, methylene blue and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate) from aqueous solution have been studied. Effects of activation by HCl and HNO3 acids on the sorption properties of these carbons were investigated by mass titration, sorption isotherms, IRS, SEM and XRS. The models of Langmuir and Freundlich do not represent our sorption data very well. An earlier proposed empirical correlation is applied successfully to carry out a parameter of comparison between the studied carbons. The acidic treatment changes the surface chemical properties of the two thermal-treated carbons lowering their sorption performances. The carbons show good capacities to uptake metals, phenol and methylene blue, but sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate is removed from its solutions to minor extent. The up-taking properties are found similar to those of two worldwide used commercial grade carbons.
pine cones, Cent. Eur. J. Chem., 2013, 11, 78-85.
 Toscano G., Cimino G., New carbon from low cost vegetal precursors: acorn and cypresscone, Cent. Eur. J. Chem.,2013, 11, 2012-2021.
 Li D., Ma X., Liu X., Yu L., Preparation and characterization of nano-TiO2 loaded bamboo-based activated carbon fibers by H2O activation, BioResources, 2014, 9, 602-612.
 Zhang Y.-J., Xing Z.-J., Duan Z.-K., Li M., Wang Y., Effects of steam activation on the pore structure and surface chemistry of activated carbon derived from bamboo waste, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2014, 315
the branch. We found that the rats' skill in extracting seeds
from the closed pine cone, and their ability to survive on pine seeds as a major
food source, is not a genetic trait ; rather, the skill is passed on from mother
to offspring through a process of cultural transmission (Aisner and Terkel 1985).
The technique of obtaining cypresscone seeds is relatively simple due to
the simple arrangement of the cone scales. The rat gnaws away the sides of
the cones until the small seeds are exposed and then feeds on them.
Rats of both subpopulations were
] Fernandez, M. E., Nunell, G. V., Bonelli, P. R., & Cukierman, A. L. (2010). Effectiveness of Cupressus sempervirens cones as biosorbent for the removal of basic dyes from aqueous solutions in batch and dynamic modes. Bioresource Technology, 101, 9500–9507. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.07.102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.07.102  Fernandez, M. E., Nunell, G. V., Bonelli, P. R., & Cukierman, A. L. (2012). Batch and dynamic biosorption of basic dyes from binary solutions by alkaline-treated cypresscone chips. Bioresource Technology, 106, 55–62. DOI: 10
round cones more than
8 mm diam. See also Chinese Arborvitae (Platycla-
Notes: Th e species has become a popular orna-
mental, with more than 30 described forms and
cultivars. It was logged heavily in the 20th century;
the wood is light and very decay-resistant. Some
trees on the Gulf coastal plain have been assigned
to subsp. henryae (Li H.L.) E. Murray; these in-
clude the largest known trees in the species.
CedarAtlantic White Cedar
had placed ben-
zoin, lysimachia, rose petals, and a lock of her hair, as well as some pine and
cypresscones, and on the two sides of which she had stitched an inscription
of eight characters that read:
The pine and the cypress are evergreen,2
her human countenance is like a flower.
When she had finished preparing this keepsake, she intended to give it to
Ch’en Ching- chi, but he did not happen to be in the anteroom where he
lived just then, so she dropped it inside through the window. later on, when
Ch’en Ching- chi opened the door and went in, he saw the
'iuChao-ao jji ^ 1¾, Tu-shih hsiang-chu ££ I^jF Qi, 5 vols. (Peking: Chung-
hua shu-chu, 1979), vol. 2, chuan 8, pp. 620-621.
'the sage of poetry'
90 Theoretical Background
Examine in what he rests—we see much in which Tu Fu finds no
rest. Cypresscone and roseate clouds are the foods of immortals,
foods of purity and otherworldliness, and they are to be Tu Fu's
food; they are exposed, the bitter and insubstantial food of hungry
necessity. He can find no contentment in them, nor can he pretend
to contentment. In hardship, hunger, and cold there is no
west coast and is very like redcedar in many respects. In the south-
ern part of their shared range, Nootka-cypress usually grows at higher
Figure 2.27. Two thujas on same
scale. (a) Eastern white-cedar and
(b) Western redcedar.
Figure 2.28. Western redcedar. (a) Twig with cones. (b) A single cone, enlarged.
(c) Seeds; note double wings.
identifying the conifers 31
elevations than redcedar, but farther north it is found down to sea level.
The two species are easy to tell apart if cones can be found. A Noot-
ka-cypresscone is a very small sphere surfaced with
when I heard my own footsteps I stopped.
Something astringent and unsatisfied remained in my mouth, dissolved
in my saliva by all this black uncertainty, as though I had bitten into a
cypresscone. And yet, at the same time, I felt something solid, rich,
pure, which gave me a peculiar sense of euphoria, and made me think,
T H E D E A D H 0 U S E • 101
with mathematical precision, how easily I would surmount tomorrow's
difficulties in my work, something that had struck me hitherto as
insuperable. A harvest moon had risen among the cypresses. Behind my
cypress-cones / That spired above the wood"
(TW, 331). The landscape of withdrawal or seductive ease
was, as we shall see, to represent a particularly strong temp
tation for Tennyson, but in this poem happiness is not to be
found in the solitude of the cavern in the woods; the speaker
6 Or, to use the terminology devised by Appleton, a prospect-dominant
landscape has given way to a refuge-dominant landscape. Appleton would
also describe the cavern within the wood as the reduplication of refuge sym
bols. The Experience of Landscape, p. 73ff. and p. 270.
T H E P