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CHAPTER TWO Dialectic of EnLIGHTenment If I could alter the nature of my being and become a living eye, I would voluntarily make that exchange. WOlMAR IN JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU'S LA NOUVElLE HELOISE I The general system of the sciences and orts is 0 sort of lobyrinth .... The encyclopedic orrange· ment of our knowledge, ... consists of ... placing the philosopher ot a vontoge point, so ta speak, high obove this vost lobyrinth, whence he con perceive the principle sciences ond orts simultaneously. From there he con see at 0 glance the objects of

CHAPTER I Dialectics of Enlightenment Nowhere has Analysis yielded more anomalies, real or supposed, than in the Odyssey's opening verses, and nowhere are the issues at stake of greater importance for a synoptic interpretation of the poem: CY.v8pa f:J-OL E!vvem>, Moi><Ta, 7TOAlnp07TOV, 6<; wiA.a 7TOAAa 7TAayxfJTJ, eTTel TpolT}<; lepov 7TpoA.le8pov f!7Tep<TB" 7TOAA6Jv 8, av8p6mwv C8ev Cf.<TTBa Kal v6ov E!yvw, 7TOAAa 6' {j ')'' ev 7T6VTCp 7TCtfJev Cf.Ayea 6v KaTa fJvf:J,6V, tipVVf:J-BVO<; ijv TB lfroX"T/V Kal V6<TTOV BTalpWV. aAA' ov8' cil<; 8Tc

CHAPTER 7 The Dialectic of Enlightenment J udging by the meaning of e hristianity and the rules of a few monastic orders, things as they are afford no reason for joyo They are marked by injustice and terrible suffering. To be conscious of this day and night was a matter of course, and the sleeping in coffins a symbol, similar to the Jewish custom of wearing the shroud on the highest holy day. The thought of happiness was identical with that of eternal salvation, it re- ferred to something other than the world as it is. National cust011lS have always

2 The Dialectic of Enlightenment Revisited Upon its publication, MaxHorkheimer and TheodorW. Adorno’s 1944Dialectic of Enlightenment was greeted as a kind of radical, underground cult work and over the years has become a kind of classic purporting to explain nothing less than the distorted nature and course of Western civilization, mass culture, anti-Semitism and the murderous inclinations of modernity. The present, critical and rather idiosyncratic reflections on the book go verymuch against this admiring grain.1 It is based, admittedly, partly on personal

Brian O’Connor 7 Kant in the Dialectics of Enlightenment In Dialektik der Aufklärung discussions of Kant’s ideas feature more than those of any other philosopher. Those discussions, however, rarely attempt to understand the argumentative structure of Kant’s philosophy. Kant’s ideas are invoked large- ly as an aide to gaining greater insight into the broader phenomenon of the evo- lution of modern reason. The text’s treatment of Kant’s work is, as a conse- quence, fragmentary and partial. Neither scholarly accuracy nor systematic reconstruction plays a role in

Sam Fleischacker Kant in the Dialectic of Enlightenment This paper offers a thorough review of the uses of Kant in Dialektik der Aufklä- rung¹, and argues that the authors are more Kantian than is generally recog- nized. A few caveats are in order: First, given the difficulty of the Dialektik, and the complexity of the context in which it was written, I am reluctant to offer any interpretation of it with full confidence. I intend the suggestions given here², rather, in tentative vein, as a spark to discussion rather than a set of firm conclusions. Horkheimer and

, as authors such as Dubiel and Söllner or Brick and Postone show,2 impinged deeply on the theoretical self-understanding of the members of the Institute for Social Research. Pollock’s study of the development of capitalism had been a perma- nent part of the Institute’s work since the early 1930s. In his early essays3 The Disappearance of Class History in “Dialectic of Enlightenment” A Commentary on the Textual Variants (1947 and 1944) by Willem van Reijen and Jan Bransen A Commentary on the Textual Variants 249 he followed Marx in locating the contradictions

6 Demythologizing Heidegger’s Thrownness Toward Dialectic of Enlightenment On July 15, 1932, three years after Martin Heidegger’s pre sen ta- tion in Frankfurt’s Kant Society, Theodor W. Adorno opened his lecture on “Die Idee der Naturegeschichte” (“The Idea of Natural- History”) in the same venue by saying that his was “no more than an attempt to take up and further develop the prob lems of the so- called Frankfurt discussion.” Adorno acknowledged that “many uncomplimentary things have been said about this discussion.” Yet, he firmly believed “that it

7 c h a p t e r o n e I Against I: Stressing the Dialectic in the Dialectic of Enlightenment 1. IntroDuctIon the Dialectic of Enlightenment, Adorno’s cooperative effort with Max Horkheimer, serves as the backdrop to all of Adorno’s subsequent thinking about freedom. For this reason it is essential to understand Hork- heimer and Adorno’s aspirations with this text, especially the critique of modernity found there. unfortunately this is no easy task— the Dialectic of Enlightenment has been read alternatively as elaborating an “ ‘excess’ Enlightenment,”1 as a