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Drug delivery is the process of administering a pharmaceutical to a patient to achieve a therapeutic effect. There are various ways to deliver drugs to a patient; however, in this special issue, we focus on liquid drug delivery via an infusion pump. This special issue contains the first results of the EURAMET Metrology for Drug Delivery project [7]. Typically, the amount of drug delivered and the drug itself are the most important parameters in drug delivery. However, there is a significant percentage of drugs for which the actual flow rate during infusion is

Abbreviations EMRP, European Metrology Research Programme; EURAMET, European Association of National Metrology Institutes; GUM, Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement; IPQ, Portuguese Institute for Quality; ISO, International Standard Organization; MeDD, Metrology for Drug Delivery; SUD, start-up delay; VSL, Dutch Metrology Institute. Introduction Drug delivery devices or infusion instruments are widely used in the clinical environment. Their main function is to provide drug therapy, nutrition, and hydration intravenously to patients. Drug delivery

References [1] Walicka A. (2017): Rheology of Fluids in Mechanical Engineering . – Zielona Góra: University Press. [2] Mandelbrot B.B. (1967): How long is the coast of Britain? Statistical self-similarity and fractional dimension . – Science, vol.155, pp.636-638. [3] Mandelbrot B.B. (1982): The Fractal Geometry of Nature . – New York: W.H. Freeman. [4] Kalia Y.N. and Guy R.H. (2001): Modeling transdermal drug release . – Adv. Drug Delivery Rev., vol.48, pp.159-172. [5] Carreras N., Alonso C., Marti M. and Lis M.J. (2015): Mass transport model through the

. Clin. Cancer Res. 7 , 3229 (2001). 19 10.1016/j.bmcl.2005.10.089 , L. Kuznetsova, J. Chen, L. Sun, X. Wu, A. Pepe, J. M. Veith, R. J. Bernacki, I. Ojima. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 16 , 974 (2006). 20 10.1517/17425247.2.5.873 , J. J. Chen, S. Jaracz, X. Zhao, S. Chen, I. Ojima. Exp. Opin. Drug Delivery 2 , 873 (2005). 21 10.1016/S0169-409X(97)00095-1 , R. V. J. Chari. Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 31 , 89 (1998). 22 10.1021/jm025540g , I. Ojima, X. Geng, X. Wu, C. Qu, C. P. Borella, H. Xie, S. D. Wilhelm, B. A. Leece, L. M. Bartle, V. S. Goldmacher, R. V. Chari. J. Med

1 Introduction The development of transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) is attractive as skin is the largest organ. TDDS have distinct advantages over oral administration or injections since they directly deliver drugs into the skin or even the systemic circulation, avoiding first-pass clearance of liver thus enhancing bioavailability. TDDS provide sustained and steady-state pharmacokinetics, therefore decreasing administration frequency and improving patient compliance. Further, TDDS avoid the limitation of injections such as pain, accidental needle

. Biodegradable nanofibrous polymeric substrates for generating elastic and flexible electronics. Advanced Materials , Vol. 36, No. 33, 2014, pp. 5823-5830. [5] Celebioglu, A., and T. Uyar. Hydrocortisone/cyclodextrin complex electrospun nanofibers for a fast-dissolving oral drug delivery system. RSC Medical Chemistry , Vol. 11, No. 2, 2020, pp. 245-258. [6] Ye, D., Y. Ding, Y. Duan, J. Su, Z. Yin, and Y. A. Huang. Large-scale direct-writing of aligned nanofibers for flexible electronics. Small, Vol. 14, No. 21, 2018, id. 1703521. [7] Zhang, C., J. Cai, C. Liang, A. Khan

REFERENCES 1. L. Zhang and S. Mao, Application of quality by design in the current drug development, As. J. Pharm. Sci . 12 (2017) 1–8; 2. M. R. Prausnitz and R. Langer, Transdermal drug delivery, Nat. Biotechnol . 26 (2008) 1261–1268; 3. M. J. Tsai, I. J. Lu, Y. S. Fu, Y.P. Fang, Y. B. Huang and P. C. Wu, Nanocarriers enhance the transdermal bioavailability of resveratrol: In-vitro and in-vivo study, Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 148 (2016) 650–656;

. [ 12 ] reported the first “swollen” phospholipid system that formed distinct layers, and during the following years, a novel drug delivery system (DDS) based on liposomes was developed. Liposomes are self-assembled, totally enclosed spherical vesicles composed of non-toxic phospholipids, which are capable of encapsulating both hydrophilic and lipophilic cargomolecules [ 13 ]. Liposomes have several special advantages for drug delivery: enhancing the solubility of hydrophobic drugs: the ability to incorporate both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs at the same time

nanomedicine only few of them managed to reach the market. To overcome these barriers and optimize nanoparticle delivery to solid tumors a careful design of nanoparticle delivery systems is required. Here, we first discuss physiological barriers to the effective delivery of nanomedicines to tumors, subsequently we provide general design considerations and present intelligent drug delivery systems that have been developed to date. Physiological barriers to the effective delivery of nanomedicines to solid tumors Three parameters of the tumor micro-environment determine the

References Johnson, B. F. G. (2003). Topics in Catalysis, Chem. & Mater. Sci. 24(1-4), 147-159. DOI: 10.1023/B:TOCA.0000003086.83434.b6. Khanna, V. K. (2008). Nanoparticle-based Sensors, Defence Sci. J. 58(5), 608-616. Hoshino, A., Fujioka, K. & Oku, T. (2004). Physicochemical properties and cellular toxicity of nanocrystal quantum dots depend on their surface modification. Nano Lett. 4(11), 2163-2169. DOI: 10.1021/nl048715d. Torchilin, V. P. (2001). Structure and design of polymeric surfactant-based drug delivery systems, J Cont. Rel. 73(2-3), 137