1 9 2 7 A W A R D
A B O U T T H E D I S P U T E S
O N T H E MISSISSIPPI Q U E S T I O N
SAMUEL F. BEMIS
Samuel Flagg Bemis (born on October 20,1891, in Worcester, Mass.) was a
student of earlyAmericandiplomacy and Latin American relations in his
native city at Clark University, where he also received the Master's degree
in 1913. Bemis added Harvard's Master of Arts degree to that of Clark
University in 1915 and earned the following year a doctorate in philosophy
after a year of study in England and France on a fellowship. Still one year
States applied to their domestic institutions.
It was also the postulate they applied to their foreign relations. They
were not fi rebrands yearning to remake world order. They just
wanted to establish their place in that order without compromising
the liberty they enjoyed at home.
This statement by historian Robert Smith sparkles with clarity:
“The story of earlyAmericandiplomacy is therefore the search for
a republican realpolitik, a diplomacy compatible with republican in-
stitutions at home that recognized the realities of world
AmericanDiplomacy: A Reappraisal.” In The American
Revolution and “A Candid World,” edited by Lawrence S. Kaplan. Kent,
Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1977.
———.John Adams and the Diplomacy of the American Revolution. Lexington:
University Press of Kentucky, 1980.
Jervis, Robert. Perception and Misperception in International Politics. Princeton,
N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1976.
Johnston, Alastair Iain. “Thinking about Strategic Culture.” International Secu-
rity 19 (Spring 1995): 32–64.
Kant, Immanuel (1784). “An Answer to the Question: What Is Enlightenment
of two different political temperaments from a Shake-
speare play that curiously leaves England, the land of Shakespeare, aside.
N O T E S T O C H A P T E R 1 0 235
6. Goethe, “Wilhelm Meister’s Travels,” as quoted by Thomas Mann,
“Goethe and Democracy,” in Mann’s Addresses, 128.
7. DeLillo, “In the Ruins of the Future,” 33.
8. See Gilbert, To the Farewell Address, which analyzes the mood of earlyAmericandiplomacy for which Adams’s famous quote is so characteristic.
9. Bloom, The Closing of the American Mind, 153.
10. Thomas Mann, Reflections, 429.
American isolationist policy 220
Britain’s ambassador to Russia 207–8
British diplomatic delegation to China 429,
433, 434–7, 448–9, 450, 451–3, 462–6, 479
earlyAmericandiplomacy 190, 191, 206
Drake, Sir Francis 143
Dundas, Henry 291, 381
Dunmore, John Murray, 4th Earl of 363, 367,
Dutch Batavia 442–3, 458
Dutch East India Company (VOC) 302, 442
East India Company (EIC)
anti-corruption measures 297–8
Bengal famine 277
Board of Control 292
British political class, legislation against
concerns over the role of 284, 289–90, 295–6
confl ict and
Howard, Harry. "The United States and the Problem of the Turkish Straits."
Middle East Journal ι (January 1947) :59-72.
. "The United States and Turkey: American Policy in the Straits
Question (1914-1963)." Balkan Studies 4 (1963):225-250.
. "United States Policy Towards Greece in the United Nations,
1946-1950." Balkan Studies 8 (1967):263-296.
Hull, Cordell. The Memoirs of Cordell Hull. 2 vols. New York, 1948.
Hurewitz, J. C. The Struggle for Palestine. New York, 1950.
Hutson, James H. "Intellectual Foundations of EarlyAmerican
sons of the past, the impact of technological change, and the structural pat-
terns of the international system itself.11 After independence in 1776, the
United States lived in a dangerous neighborhood, surrounded by European
adversaries—some strong, some tottering—all eager to contain or crush the
infant, vulnerable, faltering young republic. EarlyAmericandiplomacy
evolved in an environment of perceived danger (as well as opportunity).
“From the 1780s through the 1820s,” writes James Lewis, “the first two genera-
tions of policymakers worked to develop
diplomatic history; it is very useful, but in spite of its size, far from
Gilbert, Felix. To the Farewell Address: Ideas of Early American For-
eign Policy. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1961. Gil-
bert argues that there was a fundamental tension in earlyAmericandiplomacy between realism and idealism; this was an influential
book and is still of considerable interest.
Gipson, Lawrence Henry. The British Empire before the American Rev-
olution. 15 vols. Caldwell, Idaho and New York: Caxton Printers
and Alfred A. Knopf, 1936