T. C. LOUNGHIS
Ambassadors, Embassies and Administrative Changes
in the EasternRomanEmpire Prior to the Reconquista
It has been pointed out in recent years, that the eastern half of the Roman
Empire not only reacted to the disasters that plagued the West during the fifth cen-
tury, but it also reacted in a distinctly eastern manner, and reflected quite naturally
the special conditions prevailing in the eastern provinces.1 The special conditions
prevailing in the eastern part of the Empire, already around the year 408, are quite
significantly felt by the
Making sure you know whom to kill:
spatial strategies and strategic boundaries
in the EasternRomanEmpire
Susan E. Alcock
In 88 B.C., a killing was ordered in the eastern half of the Roman empire. Mi-
thradates VI Eupator Dionysos, king of Pontos and enemy of Rome, declared
that all Romans and Italians in the imperial province of Asia (roughly western
modern Turkey) were to die. The order was carefully synchronized to simul-
taneously reach the province’s cities, and it was carried out in various fashions
from place to place. At Ephesus, for example, terrified
1 Kazhdan 1954.
2 For example Siuziumov 1956.
3 Ostrogorsky 1959.
4 Kirsten 1958.
5 Dölger 1961.
6 Lavan 2001a.
7 Vittinghoff 1958; Kurbatov 1971; idem 1973; Liebeschuetz 1959; idem 1987; idem 1996;
The reduction of the fortified city area in late antiquity:
some reflections on the end of the ‘antique city’ in the lands
of the EasternRomanEmpire
The controversy about the character of the transition between late antiquity and the
early Middle Ages goes back quite a long time. Most of the scholars still accept the old
“suggests that the Roman Empire, in
its surviving Eastern Roman (‘Byzantine’) form, maintained a continual and sustained part in
shaping the life of the West until at least the seventh century …”, and “Byzantine objects found
in the West – whether they arrived through trade, diplomacy or the travels of individuals – force
us to reconsider the extent and the purpose of the EasternRomanEmpire’s intervention in the
West, including Britain. In conclusion Dr Harris explores the idea of a ‘Late Antique Common-
wealth’, extending from Britain to the Mediterranean”. From
Kaiser Phokas (602–610) als
Abstract: The paper argues that Heraclius was forced to demonstrate the legiti-
macy of his rule in a particular manner, because his usurpation in 610 was
structurally very similar to that of his predecessor Phocas (in 602), and the con-
dition of the EasternRomanEmpire deteriorated rapidly during the first years of
his rule. Considering the fact that not only Phocas but also Heraclius destroyed the
well-established order in the viewof contemporaries, one gets a notion ofwhat can
bemeant by ‘legitimacy