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Z. Phys. Chem. 222 (2008) 319–354 / DOI 10.1524/zpch.2008.222.2–3.319 © by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, München Nanocrystalline Metals Prepared by Electrodeposition By H. Natter and R. Hempelmann∗ Universität des Saarlandes, Physikalische Chemie, Geb. B2 2, D-66123 Saarbrücken, Germany (Received July 31, 2007; accepted in revised form August 8, 2007) Pulsed Electrodeposition / Nanocrystalline / Nano Metals / Fuel Cell Catalysts / Ionic Liquids An overview is presented about the preparation of nanocrystalline metals by pulsed electrodeposition out of aqueous

420 , 57 (2002). 7 10.1002/adma.200306035 , K.-K. Lew, L. Pan, E. C. Dickey, J. M. Redwing. Adv. Mater. 15 , 2073 (2003). 8 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2005.12.096 , N. D. Zakharov, P. Werner, G. Gerth, L. Schubert, L. Sokolov, U. Gösele. J. Cryst. Growth 290 , 6 (2006). 9 10.1039/b906995j , A. Izgorodin, O. Winther-Jensen, B. Winther-Jensen, D. R. MacFarlane. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11 , 8532 (2009). 10 F. Endres, D. MacFarlane, A. Abbott. Electrodeposition from Ionic Liquids , Wiley-VCH, Weinheim (2008). 11 10.1016/j.jfluchem.2005.04.017 , N. V. Ignat’ev, U. Welz

[1] Andreev, Y. Y. (1979). Kinetics of alloy formation on the solid cathode during electrodeposition of metal from molten salt electrolyte. Russian Journal of Electrochemistry, 15, 49–54. (in Russian) [2] Baraboshkin, A. N. (1976). Electrocrystallization of metals from molten salts. Moscow, Russia: Nauka. (in Russian) [3] Bukatova, G. A., Kuznetsov, S. A., & Gaune-Escard, M. (2003). The electrochemical synthesis of europium boride. Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, 39B, 251–259. http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/JMMB0302251B [4] Fuller, J. (2002). New directions for

5 Electrodeposition 5.1 General remarks Plenty of electrolytic processes are applied in industry for manufacturing many of re- agents and materials such as chlorine, sodium hydroxide (electrolysis of NaCl), hy- drogen (electrolysis of water), and metals by electroextraction from the proper salt (e.g., Zn, Cd) or by electrorefining [1, 2]. Electrorefining means anodic dissolution of contaminated metals and further cathodic deposition of purified metals. By using electrolytic deposition (shortly named electrodeposition), we can obtain not only metals but also

Copyright © 2013 De Gruyter. DOI 10.1515/htmp-2012-0045 Electrodeposition of Solar Cell Grade Silicon in High Temperature Molten Salts Junli Xu1; and Geir Martin Haarberg2 1 College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 2 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nor- wegian University of Science and Technology, Trond- heim Abstract. Silicon is the most common material used in so- lar cells. High cost of silicon restricts the widely use of PV power. In order to make solar cells more accessible and affordable, it is strongly needed to develop a new

Z. Phys. Chem. 221 (2007) 1287–1305 / DOI 10.1524/zpch.2007.221.9–10.1287 © by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, München Monte Carlo Simulation of Kinetically Limited Electrodeposition on a Surface with Metal Seed Clusters By Timothy O. Drews, Richard D. Braatz, and Richard C. Alkire∗ Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA Dedicated to Prof. Dr. Dieter M. Kolb on the occasion of his 65th birthday (Received July 20, 2007; accepted July 23, 2007) Metal Cluster / Nucleation / Kinetic Monte

Z. Phys. Chem. 222 (2008) 671–686 . DOI 10.1524.zpch.2008.5315 © by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, München Surface Analysis of Nanoscale Aluminium and Silicon Films Made by Electrodeposition in Ionic Liquids By Fabian Bebensee1,2, Natalia Borissenko1, Martin Frerichs2, Oliver Höfft1, Wolfgang Maus-Friedrichs2, Sherif Zein El Abedin1,3, and Frank Endres1,* 1 Faculty of Natural and Materials Science, Clausthal University of Technology, Robert- Koch-Str. 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany 2 Institute for Physics und Physical Technologies, Clausthal

, Mekhanika 1999(5/6): 153. Malyshev VV (2007) Teoreticheskiye osnovy I prakticheskaya realizatsiya elektroosazhdeniya molibdena iz ionnykh rasplavov (Theoretical Backgrounds and Practical Realization of Molybdenum Electrodeposition from Ionic Melts), Teor. Osnovy Khim. Tekhnol. 41(3): 302. Malyshev VV, Gab AI, Gaune-Escard M (2008) Initial stages of nucleation of molybdenum and tungsten carbide phases in tungstate-molybdate-carbonate melts, J. Applied Electrochem. 38: 315. Malyshev VV, Novoselova IA, Gab AI, Pisanenko AD, Shapoval VI (2000) Teoreticheskiye osnovy

body fluid (SBF) solution. 4 Conclusions FHAp coatings were successfully synthesized on the 316LSS surface by the electrodeposition method via a simple technique. The optimal conditions were determined as follows: the electrolyte 3×10 –2 M Ca(NO 3 ) 2 .4H 2 O+1.8×10 –2 M NH 4 H 2 PO 4 +0.15 M NaNO 3 +6% H 2 O 2 +0.002 M NaF, at 25°C, and the scanning potential range from 0 V/SCE to –1.8 V/SCE during five scans and 5 mV/s. The obtained coatings were single phase crystals of HAp, with a rod shape and average size 100 nm×30 nm. The highest content of the F – ion is 1

Abstract

In the present work, the cobalt electrodeposition onto polycrystalline gold electrodes from aqueous solutions containing 0.01M CoSO4 + 1 M (NH4)2SO4 at pH=7 was analyzed. Linear voltammetry results suggested a change in the kinetic of the cobalt electrodeposition. In all cases, the nucleation rate (A), the number of active nucleation sites (N 0) and the saturation number of nuclei (N s ) values were potential dependent. The calculated Gibbs free energy (ΔG) for this system was 1.88×10−20 J nuclei−1 and the transfer coefficient for the Hydrogen Electroreduction Reaction (HER) was 0.47.